1790, "arrangement in a line," from French alignement, from aligner "to arrange in a line" (see align). Political sense is from 1933.
early 15c., "to copulate" (of wolves, dogs), literally "to range (things) in a line," from Old French alignier "set, lay in line" (Modern French aligner), from à "to" (see ad-) + lignier "to line," from Latin lineare "reduce to a straight line," from linea (see line (n.)). Transitive or reflexive sense of "fall into line" is from 1853. The international political sense is attested from 1934. The French spelling with -g- is unetymological, and aline was an early form in English. Related: Aligned; aligning.
"vessel belonging to a shipping line," 1838, from line (n.) on notion of a succession of ships plying between ports along regular "lines," as distinguished from transient ships using those ports. (Line in this sense is attested by 1786 in reference to stagecoaches.) Earlier it meant "man of war, ship of the line" (1829). Meaning "cosmetic for highlighting the eyes" is from 1926. The type of baseball hit (forcible and parallel to the ground) was so called from 1874 (line drive is attested from 1899).
early 15c., liniament, "distinctive feature of the body, outline," from Latin lineamentum "contour, outline; a feature," literally "a line, stroke, mark," from lineare "to reduce to a straight line" (here apparently in an unrecorded sense "trace lines"), from linea "string, thread, line" (see line (n.)). Figurative sense of "a characteristic" is attested from 1630s.