early 15c., "mitigation, relief," from Medieval Latin alleviationem (nominative alleviatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of alleviare "lift up, raise," figuratively "to lighten (a burden), comfort, console," from assimilated form of Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + levis "light" in weight (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight").
1540s, "to raise, lift, elevate," especially with a rope or tackle, earlier hoise (c. 1500), from Middle English hysse (late 15c.), which probably is from Middle Dutch hyssen (Dutch hijsen) "to hoist," related to Low German hissen and Old Norse hissa upp "raise," Danish heise, Swedish hissa. A nautical word found in most European languages (French hisser, Italian issare, Spanish izar), but it is uncertain which coined it. Related: Hoisted; hoisting. In phrase hoist with one's own petard, it is the past participle.
For 'tis the sport, to have the engineer
Hoist with his own petar: and it shall go hard
But I will delve one yard below their mines,
And blow them at the moon: O 'tis most sweet,
When in one line two crafts directly meet.
["Hamlet," Act III, Scene iv]
Meaning "to lift and remove" was prevalent c. 1550-1750. As a noun, 1650s, "act of hoisting;" 1835, "that by which something is hoisted," from the verb.
late 14c., "a rising, height of something, height to which something is elevated," from Old French elevation and directly from Latin elevationem (nominative elevatio) "a lifting up," noun of action from past-participle stem of elevare "lift up, raise," figuratively, "to lighten, alleviate," from ex "out" (see ex-) + levare "to lighten; to raise," from levis "light" in weight (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight"). Meaning "act of elevating" is from 1520s.
An obsolete verb insurge (from French insurger) "to rise in opposition or insurrection" was common 16c. For verb forms 19c. writers sometimes turned to insurrectionize or insurrect.
mid-15c., "expressing earnest purpose or thought" (of persons), from Old French serios "grave, earnest" (14c., Modern French sérieux) and directly from Late Latin seriosus, from Latin serius "weighty, important, grave," probably from a PIE root *sehro- "slow, heavy" (source also of Lithuanian sveriu, sverti "to weigh, lift," svarus "heavy, weighty;" Old English swær "heavy," German schwer "heavy," Gothic swers "honored, esteemed," literally "weighty"). As opposite of jesting, from 1712; as opposite of light (of music, theater, etc.), from 1762. Meaning "attended with danger" is from 1800.