Etymology
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reaction (n.)

"action in resistance or response to another action or power," 1640s, from re- "back, again, anew" + action (q.v.). Modeled on French réaction, older Italian reattione, from Medieval Latin reactionem (nominative reactio), a noun of action formed in Late Latin from the past-participle stem of Latin reagere "react," from re- "back" + agere "to do, perform."

Originally a word in physics and dynamics. In chemistry, "mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other," by 1836. The general sense of "action or feeling in response" (to a statement, event, etc.) is recorded from 1914. Reaction time, "time elapsing between the action of an external stimulus and the giving of a signal in reply," attested by 1874.

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airlift (n.)
also air-lift, 1893 as a type of pumping device; 1945 in the sense "transportation of supplies by aircraft," from air (n.1) + lift (n.). As a verb by 1949; popularized in reference to the U.S.-British response to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin. Related: Air-lifted; air-lifting.
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grounded (adj.)
late 14c., "learned, instructed thoroughly in the basics;" 1540s as "firmly fixed or established," past-participle adjective from ground (v.). Electrical sense is from 1889. Meaning "having been denied privileges" is from 1940s. Dickens had room-ridden "confined to one's room."
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pheromone (n.)
"chemical released by an animal that causes a specific response when detected by another animal of the same species," but the exact definition is much debated; 1959, coined (by Karlson & Lüscher) from Greek pherein "to carry" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children") + ending as in hormone.
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Caxton (n.)

1811, "a book printed by William Caxton (obit c. 1491), English merchant in the Netherlands who learned there the art of printing and introduced it to England. The surname is from the place in Cambridgeshire, literally "Kak's estate," from the Old Norse personal name Kakkr.

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virtuoso (n.)
1610s, "scholar, connoisseur," from Italian virtuoso (plural virtuosi), noun use of adjective meaning "skilled, learned, of exceptional worth," from Late Latin virtuosus (see virtuous). Meaning "person with great skill, one who is a master of the mechanical part of a fine art" (as in music) is first attested 1743.
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deipnosophist (n.)

"gourmand," 1650s, from Greek deipnosophistes "one learned in the mysteries of the kitchen," from deipnon "chief meal, dinner" (which is of unknown origin) + sophistes "master of a craft" (see sophist). the word has come down thanks to "Deipnosophistai," 2c. B.C.E. work on gastronomy by Athenaeus.

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glossolalia (n.)

"gift of tongues, speaking in tongues, ability to speak foreign languages without having learned them," 1857 (earlier in German and Italian), from Greek glōssa "tongue, language" (see gloss (n.2)) + lalia "talk, prattle, a speaking," from lalein "to speak, prattle," echoic.

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hi-de-hi 

call-and-response exclamation in singing, by 1933, associated with U.S. bandleader Cabell "Cab" Calloway (1907-1994) and especially his signature song "Minnie the Moocher," which dates from 1931.

Calloway recalled in his autobiography that the song came first and the chorus was later improvised when he forgot the lyrics during a radio broadcast. ["Harlem Renaissance Lives," Oxford, 2009]
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clerical (adj.)

1590s, "pertaining to the clergy," from cleric + -al (1), or from French clérical, from Old French clerigal "learned," from Latin clericalis, from clericus (see cleric). Meaning "pertaining to clerks and copyists" is from 1798.

Clericalism "sacerdotalism, power or influence of the clergy" is from 1849. Clericality "quality of being clerical" is from 1650s.

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