active word-forming element in English and in many verbs inherited from French and Latin, from Latin de "down, down from, from, off; concerning" (see de), also used as a prefix in Latin, usually meaning "down, off, away, from among, down from," but also "down to the bottom, totally" hence "completely" (intensive or completive), which is its sense in many English words.
As a Latin prefix it also had the function of undoing or reversing a verb's action, and hence it came to be used as a pure privative — "not, do the opposite of, undo" — which is its primary function as a living prefix in English, as in defrost (1895), defuse (1943), de-escalate (1964), etc. In some cases, a reduced form of dis-.
"grammatical form indicating the function of a verb," 1570s, an alteration of mode (n.1). The grammatical and musical (1590s) usages of it influenced the meaning of mood (n.1) in such phrases as light-hearted mood, but it is worth remembering that the two moods have no etymological relationship. Also used in traditional logic (1560s) as a variant of mode.
word-forming element in nouns of act, process, function, condition, from Old French and French -age, from Late Latin -aticum "belonging to, related to," originally neuter adjectival suffix, from PIE *-at- (source of Latin -atus, past participle suffix of verbs of the first conjugation) + *-(i)ko-, secondary suffix forming adjectives (see -ic).
1981, from Russian perestroika, literally "rebuilding, reconstruction, reform" (of Soviet society, etc.), from pere- "re-" (from Old Russian pere- "around, again," from Proto-Slavic *per-, from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through, around, against") + stroika "building, construction," from Old Russian stroji "order," from PIE *stroi-, from root *stere- "to spread." First proposed at the 26th Party Congress (1981); popularized in English 1985 during Mikhail Gorbachev's leadership of the U.S.S.R.
type of Afro-Cuban dance, also a ballroom dance based on it, the rhythm of it, and the music suitable for it; 1914 ("La Rumba" was the name of a popular tango melody from 1913), from Cuban Spanish rumba, originally "spree, carousal," derived from Spanish rumbo "spree, party," earlier "ostentation, pomp, leadership," perhaps originally "the course of a ship," from rombo "rhombus," in reference to the compass, which is marked with a rhombus. The verb is recorded from 1932. Related: Rumbaed; rumbaing.
From 1620s as "body of persons, appointed or elected, to whom some special business or function has been entrusted;" a new formation or else an extended sense of the old noun. Related: Committeeman; committeeship.
"capable of being used in place of another; capable of being replaced," 1818, a word in law originally, from Medieval Latin fungibilis, from Latin fungi "perform" (see function (n.)) via phrases such as fungi vice "to take the place." Earlier as a noun (1765).
"the mating with only one female or wife," by 1859, from Greek monos "single, alone" (see mono-) + gynē "female, woman" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman"). Related: Monogynist; monogynous. Used a few years earlier in translations of Fourier, where it refers to the quality of those who "excel in some one function."
c. 1200, prophecie, prophesie, "the function of a prophet; inspired utterance; the prediction of future events," from Old French profecie (12c. Modern French prophétie) and directly from Late Latin prophetia, in Medieval Latin also prophecia (source also of Spanish profecia, Italian profezia), from Greek prophēteia "gift of interpreting the will of the gods," from prophētēs (see prophet). Meaning "thing spoken or written by a prophet" is from late 13c.
also clothes horse, "upright wooden frame for hanging clothes to dry," 1788, from clothes + horse (n.) in its secondary sense "that upon which something is mounted." Figurative sense of "person whose sole function seems to be to show off clothes" is 1850. Clothes-screen, which had the same literal sense, is attested in the figurative sense from 1830.