Etymology
Advertisement
penult (adj.)

"last but one," 1530s, abbreviation of penultima. As a noun from 1570s as "last day but one of a month;" grammatical sense of "last syllable but one of a word" is by 1828.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
hemi- 

word-forming element meaning "half," from Latin hemi- and directly from Greek hēmi- "half," from PIE root *semi-, which is the source of Sanskrit sami, Latin semi- (see semi-), Old High German sami- "half," and Old English sam-, denoting a partial or imperfect condition (see sandblind).

Related entries & more 
outlast (v.)

"to last longer than, exceed in duration," 1570s, from out- + last (v.). Related: Outlasted; outlasting.

Related entries & more 
sandblind (adj.)

also sand-blind, "half-blind, partially blind, dim-sighted," c. 1400, probably altered (by influence of unrelated sand (n.), perhaps as though "having grit in the eyes"), from Old English *samblind, with blind (adj.) + first element from West Germanic *sami-, from PIE *semi- (see semi-).

Now archaic or obsolete. Compare Old English samlæred "half-taught, badly instructed," samstorfen "half-dead," also later sam-hale "in poor health," literally "half-whole;" sam-sodden "half-cooked." Also compare purblind.

Related entries & more 
semicircle (n.)

also semi-circle, "the half of a circle," 1520s, from semi- + circle (n.) or else from Latin semicirculus. Also compare semicircular. The meaning "a body or arrangement of objects in a half circle" is by 1590s.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
halfling (n.)
"one not fully grown," 1794, from half + -ling.
Related entries & more 
semidiurnal (adj.)

also semi-diurnal, "pertaining to or accomplished in half a day," 1590s, in astronomy, defining the half day as six hours (half the time between the rising and setting of a body); see semi- + diurnal. By 1794 in reference to tides, "occurring every 12 hours."

Related entries & more 
halve (v.)
Middle English halven, halfen "to divide in halves" (c. 1200), from half (n.). Meaning "to reduce by half" is from c. 1400. Related: Halved; halving.
Related entries & more 
penultima (n.)

"last syllable but one of a word or verse, a penult," 1580s, from Latin pænultima (syllaba), "the next to the last syllable of a word or verse," from fem. of Latin adjective pænultimus "next-to-last," from pæne "almost" (a word of uncertain origin) + ultimus "final" (see ultimate).

Related entries & more 
firn (n.)
"consolidated snow, the raw material of glaciers," 1839, literally "last year's snow, névé," from German Firn, from Swiss dialectal firn "of last year," from Middle High German virne "old," from Old High German firni, related to Old English fyrn "old," Gothic fairns "of last year," from Proto-Germanic *fur- "before" (see fore (adv.)).

The only living English relic of a useful word meaning "of last year" that was widespread in Indo-European languages (cognates: Lithuanian pernai "last year" (adv.), Greek perysi "a year ago, last year," Sanskrit parut "of last year;" also German Firnewein "wine of last year"). Old English had fyrngemynd "ancient history," more literally, "memory of long ago;" fyrnmann "man of old times;" fyrnnes "antiquity;" fyrnsægen "old saying." Middle English retained fern "long ago, formerly, of old," fern-days "days of old, former year, a year past."
Related entries & more 

Page 5