Etymology
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arroyo (n.)

"watercourse, dry stream bed," 1845, a California word, from American Spanish, in Spanish, "rivulet, small stream," perhaps from Latin arrugia "shaft or pit in a gold mine," which is apparently a compound of ad "to" (see ad-) + ruga "a wrinkle" (see rugae).

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parkland (n.)

1907, "grassland with scattered trees;" by 1937 as "land used for a park," from park (n.) + land (n.).

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terrain (n.)
1727, "ground for training horses," from French terrain "piece of earth, ground, land," from Old French (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *terranum, from Latin terrenum "land, ground," noun use of neuter of terrenus "of earth, earthly," from terra "earth, land," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea"); from PIE root *ters- "to dry." Meaning "tract of country, considered with regard to its natural features" first attested 1766.
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mainland (n.)

c. 1400, mainlond, "continent, principal land," from main (adj.) + land (n.). Usually referring to continuous bodies of land and not islands or peninsulas. Related: Mainlander. Mainland China, referring to the People's Republic (as opposed to Taiwan) is attested by 1955.

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landsman (n.)
1590s, "man of the same country," from genitive of land (n.) + man (n.). From 1660s as "one who lives on land and has little experience of the sea."
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overland (adv.)

"over or across the country," 1580s, from over- + land (n.). As an adjective, "made, done, or lying upon or across the land," by 1800.

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landlady (n.)
"woman who owns a house or land occupied by tenants, 1520s, from land (n.) + lady.
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inland (adj.)
"of or pertaining to interior parts of a country," 1550s, from in + land (n.). The noun meaning "interior parts of a country (remote from the sea or borders)" is attested from 1570s. Meaning "confined to a country" (as opposed to foreign) is from 1540s. In Middle English and Old English the same compound meant "land immediately around the mansion of an estate, land in the lord's own occupation (as opposed to land occupied by tenants)." Related: Inlander.
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continent (n.)
Origin and meaning of continent

1550s, "continuous tract of land," from continent land (mid-15c.), translating Medieval Latin terra continens "continuous land," from Latin continens "continuous," present participle of continere "to hold together, enclose," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

As "one of the large land masses of the globe" from 1610s. As "the mainland of Europe" (from the point of view of Britain), from c. 1600.

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Bhutan 
Himalayan land between Tibet and India, from Sanskrit bhota "Tibet" + anta "end." The local name is said to be Druk Yul "Land of the Dragon." Related: Bhutanese.
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