Etymology
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lacerate (v.)
"to tear roughly," early 15c., from Latin laceratus, past participle of lacerare "tear to pieces, mangle," figuratively, "to slander, censure, abuse," from lacer "torn, mangled," from PIE root *lek- "to rend, tear" (source also of Greek lakis "tatter, rag," lakizein "to tear to pieces;" Latin lacinia "flap of a garment," lancinare "to pierce, stab;" Russian lochma "rag, tatter, scrap;" Albanian l'akur "naked"). Figurative sense in English is from 1640s. Related: Lacerated; lacerating.
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laceration (n.)

1590s, "act of lacerating;" 1630s, "breach or rend made by tearing;" from French lacération, from Latin lacerationem (nominative laceratio) "a tearing, rending, mutilation," noun of action from past-participle stem of lacerare "tear to pieces, mangle; slander, abuse" (see lacerate).

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lacertine (adj.)
"lizard-like," 1841, from Latin lacerta (see lizard). Other adjectives from the early years of dinosaur paleontology were lacertian (1841), lacertilian (1848). In decorative arts, lacertine work (1854) consists of intertwined serpents.
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lace-up (adj.)
1831, originally of boots, from the verbal phrase, from lace (v.) + up (adv.).
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lace-wing (n.)
also lacewing, type of insect, 1847; see lace (n.) + wing (n.). Earlier was lace-winged fly (1826), and the shorter for might be from this.
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laches (n.)
"negligence in performance of legal duty," 1570s, earlier simply "slackness, negligence, want of zeal" (late 14c.), from Anglo-French laches, Old French lachesse "lawlessness, remissness," from Old French lasche "lax, remiss" (Modern French lâche), verbal adjective from lascher, from Vulgar Latin *lascare, classical laxare "to slacken, relax," from laxus "loose; yielding; indulgent" (from PIE root *sleg- "be slack, be languid"). Compare riches.
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lachrymal (adj.)
also lachrimal, lacrymal, early 15c., from Medieval Latin lacrimalis "pertaining to tears," from Latin lacrima, lacryma "a tear" (see lachrymose). The corrupted spelling with -ch- began in Medieval Latin. Hence French larme, Spanish lagrima "a tear," French larmoyer "to shed tears."
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lachrymose (adj.)
also lacrymose, 1660s, "tear-like," from Latin lacrimosus "tearful, sorrowful, weeping," also "causing tears, lamentable," from lacrima, lacryma "a tear," a dialect-altered borrowing of Greek dakryma "a tear," from dakryein "to shed tears, weep, lament with tears," from dakry "a tear" (from PIE *dakru- "tear;" see tear (n.1)). Meaning "given to tears, tearful" is first attested 1727; meaning "of a mournful character" is from 1822. Related: Lachrymosely.

The -d- to -l- alteration in Latin is the so-called "Sabine -L-"; compare Latin olere "smell," from root of odor, and Ulixes, the Latin form of Greek Odysseus. The Medieval Latin practice of writing -ch- for -c- before Latin -r- also altered anchor, pulchritude, sepulchre. The -y- is pedantic, from the former belief that the word was pure Greek. Earlier in the same sense was lachrymental (1620s). Middle English had lacrymable "tearful" (mid-15c.).
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laciniate (adj.)
in botany, "irregularly cut in narrow lobes, jagged," literally "adorned with fringes," 1760, from Latin lacinia "a flap" (see lacerate).
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