ancient, dim northern constellation, mid-15c., Cephe, from Latin Cepheus, from Greek Kepheus, name of a mythical king of Ethiopia, husband of Cassiopeia, father of Andromeda.
person ruling as representative of a sovereign, 1520s, from French vice-roy, from Old French vice- "deputy" (see vice-) + roi "king," from Latin regem (nominative rex) "king," which is related to regere "to keep straight, guide, lead, rule" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). The species of American butterfly so called from 1881.
1530s, "rights and powers of a king, royal privilege," from Latin regalia "royal things," noun use of neuter plural of regalis from rex (genitive regis) "king" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule").
The meaning "decorations or insignia of an order" is recorded from 1670s, probably via the sense of "the emblems or insignia of royalty," e.g. the crown, scepter, etc. (1620s).
"king or chief among some Native American tribes," 1610s, sagamo, from Abenaki (Algonquian) zogemo "chief, ruler," which is distantly related to the source of sachem.
masc. proper name, most famously in classical history king of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great (compare philippic); the from Latin Philippus, from Greek Philippos "fond of horses," from philos "beloved, loving" (see philo-) + hippos "horse" (from PIE root *ekwo- "horse"). Skelton made it the name applied to a common sparrow (perhaps from resemblance to the bird's call). In 16c., Philip and Cheyney was a way to say "any two common men."
You remember the story of the poor woman who importuned King Philip of Macedon to grant her justice, which Philip refused : the woman exclaimed, "I appeal" : the king, astonished, asked to whom she appealed : the woman replied, "From Philip drunk to Philip sober." [Emerson, "New England Reformers," 1844]