"shirt, chemise, body garment of linen or cotton for either sex," Middle English serk, late Old English serc "shirt, corselet, coat of mail," surviving as a Scottish and northern dialect word. It is either the Old English word influenced in pronunciation and spelling by its Old Norse cognate serkr, or that word in place of the native one. A general Germanic word (see shirt and also compare berserk.
West African type of loose shirt, 1969, a word of West African origin.
also dickie, dickey, a diminutive form of dick, used in a variety of senses whose origin, application, and connection are more or less obscure. These include: "detached shirt front worn in place of a shirt" (1811); "a leather apron" (1874); "a donkey" (1793); "a small bird," (1851, short for dicky-bird, a nursery-word attested from 1781); "seat in a carriage on which the driver sits" (1801). For at least the garment senses Century Dictionary suggests Dutch dek "a cover, a horse-cloth."
late Old English, cemes "shirt, undershirt," from Old French chemise "shirt, undertunic, shift," or directly from Late Latin camisia "shirt, tunic" (Jerome; also source of Italian camicia, Spanish camisa); originally a soldier's word, probably via Gaulish, from Proto-Germanic *hamithjan (source also of Old Frisian hemethe, Old Saxon hemithi, Old English hemeðe, German hemd "shirt"), which is of uncertain origin.
The French form took over after c. 1200, along with the specialized sense "woman's undergarment." In early 19c. a short, loose-fitting gown worn by women; in early 20c. a dress hanging straight from the shoulders. Each of these is possibly a separate borrowing of the French word. Related: Chemisette.
late 14c., "to record by means of notches;" c. 1400, "to cut with incisions or notches;" see score (n.). Meanings "to keep record of the scores in a game, etc." and "to succeed in making or adding a point for one's side in a game, etc." both are attested from 1742 (Hoyle on whist).
Meaning "to be scorekeeper, to keep the score in a game or contest" is from 1846. In the musical sense of "write out in score" by 1839. The slang sense "buy a narcotic drug" is by 1935; in reference to men, "achieve intercourse" by 1960. Related: Scored; scoring.
"living persons," late Old English; early 14c. as "the fact of dwelling in some place," verbal noun from live (v.). The meaning "manner of course or living" is mid-14c.; that of "action, process, or method of gaining one's livelihood" is attested from c. 1400.
To make a living or a livelihood is to earn enough to keep alive on with economy, not barely enough to maintain life, nor sufficient to live in luxury. [Century Dictionary]
1570s, of medicines, "that tends to prevent or defend from disease," from French prophylactique (16c.) and directly as a Latinized borrowing of Greek prophylaktikos "precautionary," from prophylassein "keep guard before, ward off, be on one's guard," from pro "before" (see pro-) + phylassein, Ionic variant of phylattein "to watch over, to guard," but also "cherish, keep, remain in, preserve," from phylax "guard," a word of unknown origin.
The noun is first recorded 1640s, "a medicine or treatment to prevent or defend against disease;" meaning "condom" is from 1943, replacing earlier preventive (1822), preventative (1901). Condoms originally were used more to thwart contagious disease than to prevent pregnancy. Related: Prophylactical.