Etymology
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jade (v.)
"to weary, tire out, make dull," c. 1600, from jade (n.2). Related: Jaded; jading.
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jaded (adj.)
"bored by continual indulgence," 1630s; past-participle adjective from jade (v.). Related: Jadedly; jadedness.
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jag (n.1)
"period of unrestrained activity," 1887, American English, perhaps via intermediate sense of "as much drink as a man can hold" (1670s), from earlier meaning "load of hay or wood" (1590s), of unknown origin. Used in U.S. colloquial speech from 1834 to mean "a quantity, a lot."
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jag (n.2)
"slash or rend in a garment," c. 1400, of unknown origin.
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jager (n.)
also jaeger, "German sharpshooter," 1776, from German Jäger, literally "huntsman," from jagen "to hunt," from Old High German jagon, related to Old Frisian jagia, Dutch jagen "to hunt," Old Norse jaga "to drive, to move to and fro" (see yacht (n.)). Applied to riflemen and sharpshooters in the German and Austrian armies. Englished as yager, yaeger from 1804.
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jagged (adj.)
mid-15c., "having notches," from verb jaggen (c. 1400) "to pierce, slash, cut; to notch or nick; cut or tear unevenly," a Scottish and northern English word of unknown origin, related to jag (n.2). Originally of garments with regular "toothed" edges; meaning "with the edge irregularly cut" is from 1570s. Related: Jaggedly; jaggedness.
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jaguar (n.)

big spotted cat of the Americas (Felis onca), c. 1600, from Portuguese jaguar, from Tupi jaguara, said in old sources to denote any large beast of prey ["tygers and dogs," in Cullen's translation of Abbe Clavigero's "History of Mexico"]. Compare Tupi jacare "alligator." As a type of stylish British-made car from 1935; in this sense the abbreviation Jag is attested by 1951.

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Jah (n.)
1530s, a form of Hebrew Yah, short for Yahweh "Jehovah" (see Yahweh; also see J). Used in some English bibles. Cognate with the second element in hallelujah and in Elijah.
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jai alai (n.)
1902, American English, originally in a Cuban context, from Basque, from jai "celebration" + alai "merry."
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jail (n.)
c. 1300 (c. 1200 in surnames) "a jail, prison; a birdcage." The form in j- is from Middle English jaile, from Old French jaiole "a cage; a prison," from Medieval Latin gabiola "a cage," from Late Latin caveola, diminutive of Latin cavea "a cage, enclosure, stall, coop; a hollow place, a cavity" (see cave (n.)).

The form in g- was the more usual in Middle English manuscripts (gaile, also gaiole), from Old French gaiole "a cage; a prison," a variant spelling that seems to have been frequent in Old North French, which would have been the system familiar to Norman scribes. Now pronounced "jail" however it is spelled. Persistence of gaol (preferred in Britain) is "chiefly due to statutory and official tradition" [OED], and, probably, the fact that it is known the Americans spell it the other way.

In U.S. usually a place of confinement for petty offenders. The Medieval Latin word also is the source of Spanish gayola, Italian gabbiula.
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