1690s, in reference to a specific religious movement, Pietism, from German Pietismus, originally applied in derision to the movement to revive personal piety in the Lutheran Church, begun in Frankfurt c. 1670 by Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705). See piety + -ism. With lower-case p- and in reference generally to devotion, godliness of life (as distinguished from mere intellectual orthodoxy), by 1829.
mid-14c., delectacioun, "great pleasure, particularly of the senses" (but in Middle English also spiritual and intellectual), from Old French delectation "enjoyment" (12c.) and directly from Latin delectationem (nominative delectatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of delectare "to allure, delight, charm, please," frequentative of delicere "entice" (see delicious). Also in theology "the second stage of sin, pleasure in contemplating sin, desire for sin" (mid-15c.).
"philosophical doctrine or way of thinking which holds that phenomena are the only realities or objects of knowledge," 1856, in a Christian context (opposed to materialism), from phenomenal + -ism. Used earlier in the same sense was phenomenism (1830). Related: Phenomenalist (1856).
I AM about to try to explain a manner of thought which, in various applications, or perhaps misapplications, of it, I have been in the habit of mentally characterizing, and perhaps of speaking of, as 'positivism.' I shall now however not use this term, but the term 'phenomenalism.' I understand the two terms to express in substance the same thing .... The reason for the change is, because in the purely intellectual application which I shall now make of the term, ''phenomenalism' may perhaps carry with it less danger of extraneous associations being joined with it, and may express what I mean more generally .... [John Grote, "Rough Notes on Modern Intellectual Science," 1865]
late 12c., "lacking strength or vigor" (physical, moral, or intellectual), from Old French feble "weak, feeble" (12c., Modern French faible), a dissimilation of Latin flebilis "lamentable," literally "that is to be wept over," from flere "weep, cry, shed tears, lament" (from PIE *bhle- "to howl;" see bleat (v.)). The first -l- was lost in Old French. The noun meaning "feeble person" is recorded from mid-14c.
"the sum of the cognitive facilities (except sense or sense and imagination), the capacity for reasoning truth," late 14c. (but little used before 16c.), from Old French intellect "intellectual capacity" (13c.), and directly from Latin intellectus "discernment, a perception, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence). The Latin word was used to translate Greek nous "mind, thought, intellect" in Aristotle.
late 15c., "to raise above the usual position," from Latin elevatus, past participle of elevare "lift up, raise," figuratively, "to lighten, alleviate," from ex "out" (see ex-) + levare "lighten, raise," from levis "light" in weight (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight"). Sense of "raise in rank or status" is from c. 1500. Moral or intellectual sense is from 1620s. Related: Elevated (which also was old slang for "drunk"); elevating.
late 14c., "spiritual enlightenment," from Late Latin illuminationem (nominative illuminatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin illuminare "to throw into light, make bright, light up;" figuratively, in rhetoric, "to set off, illustrate," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + lumen (genitive luminis) "light," from suffixed form of PIE root *leuk- "light, brightness." Meaning "action of lighting" in English is from 1560s; sense of "intellectual enlightenment" is from 1630s.
1801, "pertaining to the brain," from French cérébral (16c.), from Latin cerebrum "the brain" (also "the understanding"), from PIE *keres-, from root *ker- (1) "horn; head."
The meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929. Cerebral palsy attested from 1824, originally a general term for cases of paralysis that seemed to be traceable to "a morbid state of the encephalon." Used from c. 1860 in a more specific sense based on the work of English surgeon Dr. William Little.
1590s, plural of Latin illuminatus "enlightened" (in figurative sense), past participle of illuminare "light up, make light, illuminate" (see illumination). Originally a name applied to a 16c. Spanish sect (the Alumbrados), then to other sects on the continent; since 1797 used as a translation of German Illuminaten, name of a secret society founded 1776 in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, (repressed there 1785) and holding deistic and republican principles; hence used generally of free-thinkers and sarcastically of those professing intellectual enlightenment (1816). Related: Illuminatism; illuminatist.
late 14c., "endowed with the power of growth," from Old French vegetatif "(naturally) growing," from Medieval Latin vegetativus, from vegetat-, past participle stem of vegetare (see vegetable (adj.)). Middle English transferred sense was "characterized by growth." Modern pathological sense of "brain-dead, lacking intellectual activity, mentally inert" is from 1893, via notion of having only such functions which perform involuntarily or unconsciously and thus are likened to the processes of vegetable growth.