also grape-vine, 1736, from grape + vine. Meaning "a rumor; a secret or unconventional method of spreading information" (1863) is from the use of grapevine telegraph as "secret source of information and rumor" in the American Civil War; in reference to Southerners under northern occupation but also in reference to black communities and runaway slaves.
The false reports touching rebel movements, which incessantly circulated in Nashville, brings us to the consideration of the "grapevine telegraph"—a peculiar institution of rebel generation, devised for the duplex purpose of "firing the Southern heart," and to annoy the "Yankees." It is worthy of attention, as one of the signs of the times, expressing the spirit of lying which war engenders. But it is no more than just to say that there is often so little difference between the "grapevine" and the associated press telegraph, that they might as well be identical. ["Rosecrans' Campaign with the Fourteenth Corps," Cincinnati, 1863]
1560s, "a preservative," from noun use of conservatory (adj.) "having the quality of preserving," from Latin conservator "keeper, preserver, defender," agent noun from conservare. Meaning "a place for preserving or carefully keeping anything" is from 1610s, from Latin stem of conservation + -ory. From 1660s as "greenhouse." Middle English had servatorie "fish-pond, reservoir" (late 15c.), from Medieval Latin servatorium.
The meaning "school of music, for performing arts" is recorded from 1805, from Italian conservatorio or French conservatoire, a place of public instruction and training in some branch of science or the arts, especially music, from Medieval Latin conservatorium. Originally an Italian institution, "hospital for foundlings in which musical education was given;" it was picked up by the French after the Revolution. The Italian word is attested in English from 1771.
c. 1300, patroun, "a lord-master, one who protects, supports, or encourages," also "one who has the right of presenting a clergyman to a preferment," from Old French patron "patron, protector, patron saint" (12c.) and directly from Medieval Latin patronus "patron saint, bestower of a benefice; lord, master; model, pattern, example," from Latin patronus "defender, protector; former master (of a freed slave); advocate," from pater (genitive patris) "father" (see father (n.)). A doublet of pattern (n.); also compare patroon.
From late 14c. as "founder of a religious order," also "a patron saint." The meaning "one who advances and encourages the cause or work" of an artist, institution, etc., usually by means of the person's wealth and power, is suggested from late 14c., clearly in this sense by c. 1600; "commonly a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery" [Johnson]. The commercial sense of "regular customer" is recorded from c. 1600. Patron saint "saint regarded as a special protector of a person, place, profession, etc." (by 1717) originally was simply patron (late 14c.).
1748 (in Chesterfield's "Letters"), but the thing itself apparently was rare before c. 1800 as an English institution [OED]; it originally meant "a fashionable social affair (not necessarily out of doors) in which every partaker contributed something to the general table;" from French piquenique (1690s), perhaps a reduplication of piquer "to pick, peck," from Old French (see pike (n.1)), or the second element may be nique "worthless thing," from a Germanic source.
As in many other riming names, the elements are used without precision, but the lit. sense is appar. 'a picking or nibbling of bits,' a snatch, snack .... [Century Dictionary]
The word also turns up 18c. in German, Danish, Swedish. Later "pleasure party the members of which carry provisions with them on an excursion, as to some place in the country." Figurative sense of "something easy" is from 1886. Picnic basket is by 1857. Picnic table is by 1858, originally a folding table used for outdoor dining.
From late 14c. as "freedom; not being in servitude; social status of a freeman;" early 15c. as "citizenship, membership in a community or town; membership in a craft or guild." The "special right" sense narrowed 18c. to "particular legal privilege," then "right to vote" (1790). From mid-15c. as "right to buy or sell," also "right to exclude others from buying or selling, a monopoly;" meaning "authorization by a company to sell its products or services" is from 1959.
1580s, "a metal disk bearing a figure or inscription," from French médaille (15c.), from Italian medaglia "a medal," according to OED from Vulgar Latin *metallea (moneta) "metal (coin)," from Latin metallum (see metal). The other theory [Klein, Barnhart, Watkins] is that medaglia originally meant "coin worth half a denarius," and is from Vulgar Latin *medalia, from Late Latin medialia "little halves," neuter plural of medialis "of the middle" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle").
Originally in reference to a trinket or charm; by 1610s as a commemorative of a person, institution, or event. As a reward for merit, proficiency, etc., it is attested by 1751. A medal is distinguished from a coin by not being intended to serve as a medium of exchange, but in 18c. English, as in older French and Italian, it was applied to old coins no longer in circulation kept as curiosities. Related: Medallic.
c. 1300, "a paramour, a woman who cohabits with a man without being married to him;" also, in reference to Hebrew, Greek, Roman and other civilizations where the position was recognized by law, "a wife of inferior condition, a secondary wife," from Latin concubina (fem.), concubinus (masc.) "one who lives unmarried with a married man or woman." Usually the concubine was of a lower social order, but the institution, though below matrimonium, was less reproachful than adulterium or stuprum. The word itself is from concumbere "to lie with, to lie together, to cohabit," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + cubare "to lie down" (see cubicle).
Such concubines were allowed by the Greek and Roman laws, and for many centuries they were more or less tolerated by the church, for both priests and laymen. The concubine of a priest was sometimes called a priestess. [Century Dictionary]
In Middle English, as in Latin, sometimes used of a man who cohabits with a woman without marriage. Related: Concubinary; concubinal.
"harlot, woman who offers her body indiscriminately" (usually for money), 1610s, from Latin prostituta "prostitute," fem. of prostitutus "exposed publicly," adjectival use of past participle of prostituere "expose to prostitution; expose publicly" (see prostitute (v.)). No distinction in the use of the word was made between women who did so to gratify themselves, those who did so out of necessity, or those who were forced unwillingly to it.
It was somewhat earlier used in English as an adjective, "offered or exposed to lust" (1570s), earlier still in the figurative sense of "debased, devoted to vile or infamous purposes" (1560s).
The notion of "sex for hire" is not inherent in the etymology, which rather suggests one "exposed to lust" (by herself or another) or sex "indiscriminately offered." Descendants of the Latin word are now almost the official European term for the institution: German prostituierte, Russian prostitutka, etc.
Of men, in reference to homosexual acts, by 1886 (implied in a use of prostitution); the phrase male prostitute is attested by 1948.
"put an end to, do away with," mid-15c., from Old French aboliss-, present participle stem of abolir "to abolish" (15c.), from Latin abolere "destroy, efface, annihilate; cause to die out, retard the growth of," which is perhaps from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + the second element of adolere "to grow, magnify" (and formed as an opposite to that word), from PIE *ol-eye-, causative of root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish," and perhaps formed as an antonym to adolere.
But the Latin word rather could be from a root in common with Greek ollymi, apollymi "destroy." Tucker writes that there has been a confusion of forms in Latin, based on similar roots, one meaning "to grow," the other "to destroy." Now generally used of institutions, customs, etc.; application to persons and concrete objects has long been obsolete. Related: Abolished; abolishing.
Abolish is a strong word, and signifies a complete removal, generally but not always by a summary act. It is the word specially used in connection with things that have been long established or deeply rooted, as an institution or a custom : as to abolish slavery or polygamy. [Century Dictionary, 1900]
1852, from German Kinder-Garten (1840), literally "children-garden, garden of children," a metaphoric name from Kinder "children" (plural of Kind "child;" see kin (n.)) + Garten "garden" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose"). Coined by German educator Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) in reference to his method of developing intelligence in young children. Compare the double sense in nursery
Kindergarten means a garden of children, and Froebel, the inventor of it, or rather, as he would prefer to express it, the discoverer of the method of Nature, meant to symbolize by the name the spirit and plan of treatment. How does the gardener treat his plants? He studies their individual natures, and puts them into such circumstances of soil and atmosphere as enable them to grow, flower, and bring forth fruit,-- also to renew their manifestation year after year. [Mann, Horace, and Elizabeth P. Peabody, "Moral Culture of Infancy and Kindergarten Guide," Boston, 1863]
The first in England was established 1850 by Johannes Ronge, German Catholic priest; in America, 1868, by Elizabeth Peabody of Boston, Mass. Taken into English untranslated, whereas other nations that borrowed the institution nativized the name (Danish börnehave, Modern Hebrew gan yeladim, literally "garden of children"). Sometimes partially Englished as kindergarden (a form attested by 1879).