Etymology
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hop (n.3)

"a small jump, a leap on one foot," c. 1500, from hop (v.). Slang sense of "informal dancing party" is from 1731 (defined by Johnson as "a place where meaner people dance"). Meaning "short flight on an aircraft" is from 1909. Hop, skip, and jump (n.) is recorded from 1760 (hop, step, and jump from 1719).

This word [hop] has always been used here as in England as a familiar term for dance; but of late years it has been employed among us in a technical sense, to denote a dance where there is less display and ceremony than at regular balls. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]
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dateline (n.)

also date-line, 1880 as an imaginary line down the Pacific Ocean on which the calendar day begins and ends, from date (n.1) + line (n.). Never set by any treaty or international organization, it is an informal construct meant to coincide with a line 180 degrees (12 hours) from Greenwich, but it always has followed a more or less crooked course.

Meaning "line of text that tells the date and place of origin of a newspaper, article, telegram, etc." is by 1888.

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solemn (adj.)

mid-14c., "performed with due religious ceremony or reverence, sacred, devoted to religious observances," also, of a vow, etc., "made under religious sanction, binding," from Old French solempne (12c., Modern French solennel) and directly from Latin sollemnis "annual, established, religiously fixed, formal, ceremonial, traditional," perhaps related to sollus "whole" (from PIE root *sol- "whole, well-kept").

"The explanation that Latin sollemnis was formed from sollus whole + annus year is not considered valid" [Barnhart], but some assimilation via folk-etymology is possible. In Middle English also "famous, important; imposing, grand," hence Chaucer's friar, a ful solempne man. Meaning "marked by seriousness or earnestness" is from late 14c.; sense of "fitted to inspire devout reflection" is from c. 1400. Related: Solemnly.

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grill (n.)

"gridiron, grated utensil for broiling over a fire," 1680s, from French gril, from Old French greil, alteration of graille "grill, grating, railings, fencing" (13c.), from Latin craticula "gridiron, small griddle," diminutive of cratis "wickerwork," perhaps from a suffixed form of PIE *kert- "to turn, entwine." Grill-room "lunchroom where steaks, chops, etc. are grilled to order" (1869) came to be used for "informal restaurant," hence grill as a short form in this sense (by 1910). In many instances, Modern English grill is a shortened form of grille, such as "chrome front of an automobile."

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pickup (n.)

also pick-up, "that which is picked up," 1848; see pick up (v.). As "act of picking up" from 1882. Meaning "capacity for acceleration" is from 1909; that of "recovery" is from 1916. In reference to a game between informal teams chosen on the spot, from 1905; as an adjective, "composed of such things as are immediately available," by 1859.

Meaning "small truck used for light loads," 1937, is shortened from pickup truck (pickup body is attested from 1928). The notion probably being of a vehicle for use to "pick up" (feed, lumber, etc.) and deliver it where it was wanted.

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pocket (adj.)

1610s, "of or pertaining to or meant for a pocket," from pocket (n.). Pocket-money "money for occasional or trivial purposes" is attested from 1630s; pocket-handkerchief is from 1640s. Often merely implying a small-sized version of something (for example of of warships, from 1930; also compare Pocket Venus "beautiful, small woman," attested from 1808). Pocket veto attested from 1842, American English.

The "pocket veto" can operate only in the case of bills sent to the President within ten days of Congressional adjournment. If he retain such a bill (figuratively, in his pocket) neither giving it his sanction by signing it, nor withholding his sanction in returning it to Congress, the bill is defeated. The President is not bound to give reasons for defeating a bill by a pocket veto which he has not had at least ten days to consider. In a regular veto he is bound to give such reasons. [James Albert Woodburn, "The American Republic and its Government," Putnam's, 1903]

In English history a pocket borough (by 1798) was one whose parliamentary representation was under the control of one person or family.

BRAMBER, Sussex. This is one of the burgage-tenure or nomination boroughs. The place altogether consists only of twenty-two miserable thatched cottages, and is composed of two intersections of a street, the upper and middle parts of which constitute another pocket borough, called Steyning, which we shall notice in the second class, as belonging to the Duke of Norfolk. ["A Key to the House of Commons," London, 1820]
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kid (n.)

c. 1200, "the young of a goat," from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse kið "young goat," from Proto-Germanic *kidjom (source also of Old High German kizzi, German kitze, Danish and Swedish kid), of uncertain origin.

Extended meaning "child" is first recorded as slang 1590s, established in informal usage by 1840s. Applied to skillful young thieves and pugilists at least since 1812. Kid stuff "something easy" is from 1913 (the phrase was in use about that time in reference to vaudeville acts or advertisements featuring children, and to child-oriented features in newspapers).

In clothing, "made of soft leather," as though from the skin of a kid, but commercially often of other skins. Hence kid glove "a glove made of kidskin leather" is from 1680s; sense of "characterized by wearing kid gloves," therefore "dainty, delicate" is from 1856.

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swag (n.)

1650s, "a lurching or swaying, an unequal motion," from swag (v.). Meaning "ornamental festoon" (1794) is said to be probably a separate development from the verb (but compare swage).

The decorative arts sense of "informal cluster (of flowers, etc.)" is by 1794. The colloquial sense of "promotional material" (from recording companies, etc.) was in use by 2001, perhaps as an extension of this sense. Swag also was English criminal's slang for "quantity of stolen property, loot" from c. 1839. This might be related to earlier senses of "round bag" (c. 1300) and "big, blustering fellow" (1580s), which may represent separate borrowings from the Scandinavian source. "The primary meaning was 'a bulging bag'" [Klein]. Swag lamp is attested from 1966.

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hi (interj.)

exclamation of greeting, 1862, American English (first recorded reference is to speech of a Kansas Indian), originally to attract attention (15c.), probably a variant of Middle English hy, hey (late 15c.) which also was an exclamation to call attention. The only definition in the "Century Dictionary" [1902] is "An exclamation of surprise, admiration, etc.: often used ironically and in derision," suggesting the development as a greeting-word mostly took place early 20c.

Even more informal is the widely used 'Hi.' A friendly greeting for people who already know each other, it should never be said in answer to a formal introduction, but it is universally used, and accepted, by the young. ["The New Emily Post's Etiquette," 1922]

Extended form hiya attested from 1940.

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Miserere (n.)

c. 1200, "recitation of the 51st Psalm" (in Vulgate, the 50th), one of the "Penitential Psalms," so called from the phrase Miserere mei Deus "Have mercy upon me, O God," the opening line of it in the Vulgate, from Latin miserere "feel pity, have compassion, commiserate," second person singular imperative of misereri "to have mercy," from miser "wretched, pitiable" (see miser).

From 15c.-17c. it was used as an informal measure of time, "the time it takes to recite the Miserere." The musical settings of the psalm are noted for their striking effectiveness. The Latin verb also is in miserere mei "kind of severe colic ('iliac passion') accompanied by excruciating cramps and vomiting of excrement" (1610s); literally "have mercy on me."

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