Etymology
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backtalk (n.)
also back-talk, "impertinent retort," 1833; see back (adv.) + talk (n.). Originally often used in literary attempts at Irish or Scottish idiom. To talk back "answer impudently or rudely" is from 1849.
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outen (v.)

"put out, extinguish," especially in outen the light, 1916, American English dialectal; see out (adv.) + -en (1). An idiom in Pennsylvania German. In English, out (v.) "to put out" is attested from c. 1500.

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bad-mouth (v.)
"abuse (someone) verbally," 1941, probably ultimately from noun phrase bad mouth (1835), in African-American vernacular, "a curse, spell," translating an idiom found in African and West Indian languages. See bad (adj.) + mouth (n.). Related: Bad-mouthed; bad-mouthing.
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go west (v.)
19c. British idiom for "die, be killed" (popularized during World War I), "probably from thieves' slang, wherein to go west meant to go to Tyburn, hence to be hanged, though the phrase has indubitably been influenced by the setting of the sun in the west" [Partridge]. Compare go south.
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poltergeist (n.)

"a noisy spirit, a ghost which makes its presence known by noises," 1838, from German Poltergeist, literally "noisy ghost," from poltern "make noise, rattle" (from PIE root *bhel- (4) "to sound, ring, roar;" source of bellow, bell) + Geist "ghost" (see ghost (n.)). In the native idiom of Northern England, such phenomena likely would be credited to a boggart.

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Orientalism (n.)

in reference to character, style, trait, or idiom felt to be from the Oriental nations, 1769, from oriental + -ism. In the sense of "the West's patronizing representations of societies and peoples of Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East" it was popularized in the 1978 book of that name by Palestinian intellectual Edward W. Said. Related: Orientalist.

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a.m. 

also a.m., 1762 in reference to hours, an abbreviation of Latin ante meridiem "before noon" (q.v.). Synonymous with "morning" by 1776. AM as a type of radio wave broadcast, 1921, abbreviation of amplitude modulation (see amplitude). Affixed to a name, an abbreviation of artium magister "Master of Arts," an abbreviation preferable in a purely Latin idiom; British English preferred M.A. (magister artium, 1730). In some old chronologies, a.m. is anno mundi "year of the world."

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ill (adj.)

c. 1200, "morally evil; offensive, objectionable" (other 13c. senses were "malevolent, hurtful, unfortunate, difficult"), from Old Norse illr "evil, bad; hard, difficult; mean, stingy," a word of unknown origin. Not considered to be related to evil. From mid-14c. as "marked by evil intentions; harmful, pernicious." Sense of "sick, unhealthy, diseased, unwell" is first recorded mid-15c., probably from a use similar to that in the Old Norse idiom "it is bad to me." Slang inverted sense of "very good, cool" is 1980s.

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pidgin (n.)

1876, "artificial jargon of corrupted English with a few Chinese, Portuguese, and Malay words, arranged according to the Chinese idiom, used by the Chinese and foreigners for colloquial convenience in business transactions in the ports of China and the Far East," from pigeon English (1859), the name of the reduced form of English used in China for communication with Europeans, from pigeon, pidgin "business, affair, thing" (1826), itself a pidgin word (with altered spelling based on pigeon), representing a Chinese pronunciation of business. The meaning was extended by 1891 to "any simplified language."

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dialect (n.)

1570s, "language, speech, mode of speech," especially "form of speech of a region or group, idiom of a locality or class" as distinguished from the general accepted literary language, also "one of a number of related modes of speech regarded as descended from a common origin," from French dialecte, from Latin dialectus "local language, way of speaking, conversation," from Greek dialektos "talk, conversation, speech;" also "the language of a country, dialect," from dialegesthai "converse with each other, discuss, argue," from dia "across, between" (see dia-) + legein "speak" from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')").

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