hopefully (adv.)
1630s, "in a hopeful manner, with grounds of expectation for success," from hopeful + -ly (2). As a replacement for the admittedly awkward it is to be hoped that, attested from 1932 but avoided by careful writers.
Related entries & more 
despair (n.)

c. 1300, despeir, "hopelessness, total loss of hope," from Anglo-French despeir, Old French despoir, from desperer (see despair (v.)). The native word was wanhope.

Despair naturally destroys courage and stops all effort, but may produce a new kind of courage and fierce activity founded upon the sense that there is nothing worse to be feared. In this despair is akin to desperation, which is an active state and always tends to produce a furious struggle against adverse circumstances, even when the situation is utterly hopeless. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
Related entries & more 
demote (v.)

"reduce to a lower rank or class," 1881, American English coinage from de- "down" + ending abstracted from promote. Said to have been in general use in the Midwest by 1893, but not in the East.

Regarding an antithesis to 'promote,' the word universally in use in Cambridge, in Harvard College, is drop. The same word is in use in the leading schools here (Boston). I hope I may be counted every time against such barbarisms as 'demote' and 'retromote.' [Edward Everett Hale, 1892, letter to the publishers of "Funk & Wagnalls' Standard Dictionary"]

Related: Demoted; demoting.

Related entries & more 
will (v.1)
Old English *willan, wyllan "to wish, desire; be willing; be used to; be about to" (past tense wolde), from Proto-Germanic *willjan (source also of Old Saxon willian, Old Norse vilja, Old Frisian willa, Dutch willen, Old High German wellan, German wollen, Gothic wiljan "to will, wish, desire," Gothic waljan "to choose").

The Germanic words are from PIE root *wel- (2) "to wish, will" (source also of Sanskrit vrnoti "chooses, prefers," varyah "to be chosen, eligible, excellent," varanam "choosing;" Avestan verenav- "to wish, will, choose;" Greek elpis "hope;" Latin volo, velle "to wish, will, desire;" Old Church Slavonic voljo, voliti "to will," veljo, veleti "to command;" Lithuanian velyti "to wish, favor," pa-velmi "I will," viliuos "I hope;" Welsh gwell "better").

Compare also Old English wel "well," literally "according to one's wish;" wela "well-being, riches." The use as a future auxiliary was already developing in Old English. The implication of intention or volition distinguishes it from shall, which expresses or implies obligation or necessity. Contracted forms, especially after pronouns, began to appear 16c., as in sheele for "she will." In early use often -ile to preserve pronunciation. The form with an apostrophe ('ll) is from 17c.
Related entries & more 
sanatorium (n.)

"place to which people go for the sake of health or to regain health; hospital, usually private, for the treatment of patients not beyond hope of a cure," 1839, Modern Latin, noun use of neuter of Late Latin adjective sanitorius "health-giving," from Latin sanat-, past participle stem of sanare "to heal," from sanus "well, healthy, sane" (see sane). Latin sanare is the source of Italian sanare, Spanish sanar. Century Dictionary [1895] notes it was "specifically applied to military stations on the mountains or tablelands of tropical countries, with climates suited to the health of Europeans." 

Related entries & more 
attendance (n.)
late 14c., "act of attending to one's duties" (archaic), from Old French atendance "attention, wait, hope, expectation," from atendant, present participle of atendre "expect, wait for; pay attention" (see attend). Meaning "action of waiting on someone" dates from late 14c. (to dance attendance on someone is from 1560s); that of "action of being present, presenting oneself" (originally with intent of taking a part) is from mid-15c. Meaning "number of persons present" is from 1835. To take attendance in a classroom or lecture is by 1891.
Related entries & more 
quadrillion (n.)

1670s, from French quadrillion (16c.) from quadri- "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four") + (m)illion. Compare billion. In Great Britain, the fourth power of a million (1 followed by 24 zeroes); in the U.S., the fifth power of a thousand (1 followed by 15 zeroes).

Thomas Hope, first of the family to possess the Deepdene, was the author of "Anastasius," a book of the same class as Beckford's "Vathek." In each case a millionaire (we shall soon have billionaires, trillionaires, quadrillionaires) fettered, imprisoned, by abject opulence, strove to reveal himself to the world through a romance. [Mortimer Collins, "A Walk Through Surrey," Temple Bar, August 1866]
Related entries & more 
resume (v.)

c. 1400, resumen, "repossess, resume possession" (of goods, money, etc.); early 15c., "regain, take back, take to oneself anew" (courage, strength, hope, etc.); from Old French resumer (14c.) and directly from Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again," from re- "again" (denoting "repetition of an action;" see re-) + sumere "to take, obtain, buy," from sus‑, variant of sub‑ "up from under" + emere "to take" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").

From mid-15c. as "recommence, continue (a practice, custom, occupation, etc.), begin again after interruption;" also "begin again." The intransitive sense of "proceed after interruption" is from 1802. Related: Resumed; resuming.

Related entries & more 
fractal (n.)

"never-ending pattern," 1975, from French fractal, ultimately from Latin fractus "interrupted, irregular," literally "broken," past participle of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break"). Coined by French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010) in "Les Objets Fractals."

Many important spatial patterns of Nature are either irregular or fragmented to such an extreme degree that ... classical geometry ... is hardly of any help in describing their form. ... I hope to show that it is possible in many cases to remedy this absence of geometric representation by using a family of shapes I propose to call fractals — or fractal sets. [Mandelbrot, "Fractals," 1977]

The term was suggested earlier in Mandelbrot's 1967 book, "How Long is the Coast of Britain -- Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension."

Related entries & more 
abeyance (n.)
1520s, "state of expectation," from Anglo-French abeiance "suspension," also "expectation (especially in a lawsuit)," from Old French abeance "aspiration, powerful desire," noun of condition from abeer "aspire after, gape, open wide," from à "at" (see ad-) + ba(y)er "be open," from Latin *batare "to yawn, gape" (see abash).

Originally in French a legal term, "condition of a person in expectation or hope of receiving property;" it turned around in English law to mean "condition of property temporarily without an owner" (1650s). Hence "state of suspended action or existence." The French verb baer is also the source of English bay (n.2) "recessed space," as in bay window.
Related entries & more 

Page 5