Etymology
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Arthurian (adj.)
"pertaining to the series of tales of British King Arthur and his knights," 1793, from Arthur + -ian.
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Nero 

Roman emperor 54-68 C.E., born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, noted in history for his tyrannical and cruel disposition and moral depravity, the fire in 64 which destroyed much of Rome and which he was accused of setting, and his persecution of Christians. Related: Neronian; Neronic.

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tilt (v.2)

"to joust," 1590s, from tilt (n.1). Related: Tilted; tilting. The figurative sense of tilting at windmills is suggested in English by 1798; the image is from Don Quixote, who mistook them for giants.

So saying, and heartily recommending himself to his lady Dulcinea, whom he implored to succour him in this emergency, bracing on his target, and setting his lance in the rest, he put his Rozinante to full speed, and assaulting the nearest windmill, thrust it into one of the sails, which was drove about by the wind with so much fury, that the lance was shivered to pieces, and both knight and steed whirled aloft, and overthrown in very bad plight upon the plain. [Smollett translation, 1755]
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hands down (adv.)

to win something hands down (1855) is from horse racing, from a jockey's gesture of letting the reins go loose in an easy victory.

The Two Thousand Guinea Stakes was not the best contested one that it has been our fortune to assist at. ... [T]hey were won by Meteor, with Scott for his rider; who went by the post with his hands down, the easiest of all easy half-lengths. Wiseacre certainly did the best in his power to spoil his position, and Misdeal was at one time a little vexatious. [The Sportsman, report from April 26, 1840]

Ancient Greek had akoniti "without a struggle, easily," from akonitos (adj.), literally "without dust," specifically "without the dust of the arena."

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unbias (v.)

"to free from bias," 1708, from un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + bias (v.).

The truest service a private man may hope to do his country is, by unbiassing his mind as much as possible. [Swift, "The Sentiments of a Church of England Man with respect to Religion and Government," 1708]
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cathedra (n.)

"seat of a bishop in his church," 1829, Latin, literally "chair" (see cathedral).

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Aladdin 
name of a hero in stories from the "Arabian Nights," from Arabic Ala' al Din, literally "height (or nobility) of the faith," from a'la "height" + din "faith, creed." Figurative use often in reference to his magic lamp, by which difficulties are overcome, or his cave full of riches.
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idler (n.)
"one who spends his time in inaction," 1530s, agent noun from idle (v.).
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enfant terrible (n.)
1851, French, literally "terrible child" (see infant + terrible). One whose unorthodox or shocking speech or manners embarrass his associates as a naughty child embarrasses his elders. French also has enfant gâté, "spoiled child," hence "person given excessive adulation."
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paternalism (n.)

1851, "feeling of a father for his children," from paternal + -ism. By 1866 "government as by a father over his children, undue solicitude on the part of the central government for the protection of the people," specifically "excessive governmental regulation of the private affairs and business methods of the people." Related: Paternalistic (1890).

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