Etymology
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ponderous (adj.)

c. 1400, "thick;" early 15c., "heavy, weighty, clumsy by reason of weight," from Latin ponderosus "of great weight; full of meaning," from pondus (genitive ponderis) "weight," from stem of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). From late 15c. as "important." Meaning "tedious" is first recorded 1704. Related: Ponderously; ponderousness; ponderosity (1580s in the figurative sense).

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lug-sail (n.)

1670s, probably from lug (n.) in some obscure sense; perhaps so called from the "ear" of sail formed by the oblique hang of the yard from the mast.

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stipend (n.)

early 15c., "periodical payment; soldier's pay," from Latin stipendium "tax, impost, tribute," in military use "pay, salary," from stips "alms, small payment, contribution of money, gift" + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). According to Klein's sources, the first element is related to Latin stipes "log, stock, trunk of a tree" (see stipe). For the financial sense of the Latin verb, see pound (n.1). As a verb from late 15c.

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compendium (n.)

"brief compilation containing the general principles or leading points of a longer system or work," 1580s, from a Medieval Latin use of Latin compendium "a shortening, saving," literally "that which is weighed together," from compendere "to weigh together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Nativized earlier in English as compendi (mid-15c.).

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pendulum (n.)

"anything that hangs down from a point of attachment and is free to swing;" specifically, in mechanics, "a body so suspended from a fixed point as to move to and fro by the alternate action of gravity and its acquired energy of motion," 1660, from Modern Latin pendulum (1643), noun use of neuter of Latin adjective pendulus "hanging down," from pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). The Modern Latin word is perhaps a Latinization of Italian pendolo.

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counterpoise (n.)

early 15c., "a weight equal to and balancing another; any equal power or force acting in opposition," from Old French contrepois (Modern French contrepoids), from contre- "against" (see contra-) + peis, from Latin pensum "weight," noun use of neuter past participle of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

As a verb, "to act in opposition to," late 14c. (implied in counterpoised), from Old French contrepeser.

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suspension (n.)

early 15c., suspensioun, "a temporary halting or deprivation" (of office, etc.), from Latin suspensionem (nominative suspensio) "the act or state of hanging up, a vaulting," noun of action from past-participle stem of suspendere "to hang up, cause to hang, suspend," from assimilated form of sub "up from under" (see sub-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

General sense of "action of stopping; condition of being stopped" is from c. 1600. As "action of keeping in abeyance any mental action" (decision, judgment, etc.) by 1560s. Suspension of disbelief is from Coleridge:

A semblance of truth sufficient to procure for these shadows of imagination that willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitutes poetic faith. ["Biographia Literaria," 1817]

The classical literal meaning "action of hanging by a support from above" is attested in English from 1540s. The meaning "particles suspended in liquid without dissolving" is from 1707. Suspension-bridge, one in which the roadway hangs suspended from chains or wire cables, is recorded by 1819 (earlier suspended bridge, 1796).

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limp (v.)

"move with a halting or jerky step," 1560s, of unknown origin, not found in Old or Middle English; perhaps related to Middle English lympen "to fall short" (c. 1400), which probably is from Old English lemphealt "halting, lame, limping," the first element of which is itself obscure.

OED notes that German lampen "to hang limp" (Middle High German limphin) "has been compared." Perhaps it is from a PIE root meaning "slack, loose, to hang down" (source also of Sanskrit lambate "hangs down," Middle High German lampen "to hang down"). Related: Limped; limping. Limpen in Middle English was a different verb, "to happen, befall, fall to the lot of," from Old English limpan, which might ultimately be from the same root.

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pending (prep.)

1640s, "during, in the process of, for the time of the continuance of," a preposition formed on the model of French pendant "during," literally "hanging," present participle of pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

The meaning is patterned on "not decided" as a secondary sense of Latin pendente (literally "hanging") in the legal phrase pendente lite "while the suit is pending, during the litigation" (with the ablative singular of lis "suit, quarrel"). The use of the present participle before nouns caused it to be regarded as a preposition. As an adjective from 1797.

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compensation (n.)

late 14c., "action of compensating," from Latin compensationem (nominative compensatio) "a weighing one thing against another, a balancing," noun of action from past participle stem of compensare "to weigh one thing (against another)," thus, "to counterbalance," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pensare, frequentative of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen-"to draw, stretch, spin").

Meaning "what is given in recompense" is from c. 1600; meaning "amends for loss or damages" is from 1804; meaning "salary, wages" is attested from 1787, American English. The psychological sense is from 1914.

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