Etymology
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greatcoat (n.)
"large, heavy overcoat," 1660s, from great (adj.) + coat (n.).
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boyar (n.)
member of a Russian aristocratic class, 1590s, from Russian boyarin (plural boyare), perhaps from boji "struggle," or from Slavic root *bol- "great." Originally a title (abolished by Peter the Great) of officials, it came to signify the Russian aristocracy generally.
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mickle (adj., n.)

"great, large; much, abundant; a great deal," a dialectal survival of Old English micel, mycel "great, intense, big, long, much, many," from Proto-Germanic *mekilaz (source also of Old Saxon mikil, Old Norse mikill, Old High German mihhil, Gothic mikils), from PIE root *meg- "great." Its main modern form is much (q.v.); the common Middle English form was muchel. The phonetic development of the dialectal survival is obscure and might reflect Old Norse influence. Related: Mickleness. Middle English had muchel-what (pron.) "many various things."

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Britisher (n.)
"native or inhabitant of Great Britain," 1829, from British + -er (1).
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muscly (adj.)

"exhibiting great muscular development," 1590s, from muscle (n.) + -y (2).

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magnitude (n.)

c. 1400, "pre-eminence, magnificence;" early 15c., "greatness of size or extent," from Latin magnitudo "greatness, bulk, size," from magnus "great" (from suffixed form of PIE root *meg- "great") + -tudo, suffix forming abstract nouns from adjectives and participles (see -tude).

Meaning "size, extent," whether great or small is from early 15c. Of stars, "brightness or brilliancy expressed as a number" (now on a logarithmic scale) from 1640s, translating Ptolemy's Greek megethos.

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longevity (n.)

1610s, from Late Latin longaevitatem (nominative longaevitas) "great age, long life," from Latin longaevus "of great age, ancient, aged," from longus "long" (see long (adj.)) + aevum "lifetime, age" (from PIE root *aiw- "vital force, life; long life, eternity").

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largeness (n.)
c. 1300, "liberality," also "amplitude, great size," from large + -ness.
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Trent 
river in England, a Celtic name, perhaps "great wanderer," in reference to its flooding. The city in Italy (Italian Trento) is Roman Tridentum, in reference to the triple-peaked mountain nearby. The great ecumenical council there was held from 1543-63.
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rabbi (n.)

"Jewish doctor of religious law," early 14c. (in late Old English in biblical context only, as a form of address); in Middle English as a title prefixed to personal names, also "a spiritual master" generally; from Late Latin rabbi, from Greek rhabbi, from Mishnaic Hebrew rabbi "my master."

This is formed from -i, first person singular pronominal suffix, + rabh "master, great one," title of respect for Jewish doctors of law. This is from the Semitic root r-b-b "to be great or numerous" (compare robh "multitude;" Aramaic rabh "great; chief, master, teacher;" Arabic rabba "was great," rabb "master").

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