1836, "treatment of disease by remedies that produce effects opposite to the symptoms," from German Allopathie (Hahnemann), from Greek allos "other" (from PIE root *al- "beyond") + -patheia, "suffering, disease, feeling" (see -pathy). The term applied by homeopathists to traditional medicine; the formation is much-criticized by purists; the equivalent Greek compound had a different sense and was used in grammar, etc.
1570s, originally, in Britain, "a grammar school endowed for the benefit of the public," but most have evolved into boarding-schools for the well-to-do. From public (adj.) + school (n.1). The main modern meaning in U.S., "school (usually free) provided at public expense and run by local authorities," is attested from 1640s.
"a striking or cutting off," especially "the cutting off or suppression of a letter, sound, or syllable in speaking or writing," 1580s, from Latin elisionem (nominative elisio) "a striking out, a pressing out," in grammar, "the suppression of a vowel," noun of action from past-participle stem of elidere (see elide).
early 15c., interjeccioun, "an interjected or exclamatory word," from Old French interjeccion (13c.) and directly from Latin interiectionem (nominative interiectio) "a throwing or placing between," also in grammar and rhetoric, noun of action from past-participle stem of intericere "to throw between, set between," from inter "between" (see inter-) + -icere, combining form of iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). Related: Interjectional.
in Greek grammar, "dependent in accent upon the following word," 1846, from Medieval Latin procliticus, formed on analogy of encliticus from Greek proklinein "to lean forward," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + klinein "to lean" (from PIE root *klei- "to lean"). As a noun, "monosyllabic word so closely attached to the word following as to have no accent" (1864).
late 14c., originally in grammar (distinguished from singular), "containing or consisting of more than one," from Old French plurel "more than one" (12c., Modern French pluriel) and directly from Latin pluralis "of or belonging to more than one," from plus (genitive pluris) "more" (see plus). The noun meaning "a plural number" is from late 14c.
late 14c., realtif, in grammar, "a relative pronoun," from Old French relatif (13c.), from Late Latin relativus "having reference or relation," from Latin relatus, used as past participle of referre "bring back, bear back" (see refer), from re- "back, again" + lātus "borne, carried" (see oblate (n.)). The meaning "kinsman, kinswoman, person in the same family or connected by blood" is attested from 1650s.
1550s, in grammar, "addition of a letter or syllable to a word," from Late Latin, from Greek prosthesis "a putting to, an addition," from prostithenai "add to," from pros "to" (see pros-) + tithenai "to put, to place" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
From 1706 in medical arts as "the addition of an artificial part to supply a defect of the body" on the notion of "that which is added to" the body. The sense was extended to "artificial body part" by 1900. Plural prostheses.