immigrate (v.)

"to pass into a place as a new inhabitant or resident," especially "to move to a country where one is not a native, for the purpose of settling permanently there," 1620s, from Latin immigratus, past participle of immigrare "to remove, go into, move in," from assimilated form of in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + migrare "to move" (see migration). Related: Immigrated; immigrating.

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initiate (v.)

c. 1600, "introduce to some practice or system," also "begin, set going," from Late Latin initiatus, past participle of initiare "to begin, originate," in classical Latin only in the sense "to instruct in mysteries or sacred knowledge." This is from initium "a beginning; an entrance," also in plural initia "constituent parts; sacred mysteries," a noun use of the neuter past participle of inire "to go into, enter upon, begin," from in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").

In some senses the English word is a back-formation from initiation. Related: Initiated; initiates; initiating; initiator.

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harmonize (v.)

late 15c., "play or sing in harmony," from French harmoniser (15c.), from Old French harmonie (see harmony). Meaning "be in harmony (with), go well together" is from 1620s. Transitive sense "bring into harmony" is from 1700; figurative sense "bring into agreement" is from 1767. Meaning "add harmony to (a melody)" is from 1790. Related: Harmonized; harmonizing.

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bust (v.)

"to burst," 1806, variant of burst (v.); for loss of -r-, compare ass (n.2). The meaning "go bankrupt" is from 1834. The meaning "break (into)" is from 1859. The slang meaning "demote" (especially in a military sense) is from 1918; that of "place under arrest" is from 1953 (earlier "to raid" from Prohibition). In card games, "to go over a score of 21," from 1939. Related: Busted; busting.

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frying-pan (n.)

"metal pan with a handle, used for frying," mid-14c., from verbal noun from fry (v.) + pan (n.). To go out of the frying-pan into the fire ("from a bad situation to a worse one") is attested in Thomas More (1532).

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herd (v.)

mid-13c., "to watch over or herd (livestock);" of animals, "gather in a herd, go in a herd, form a flock," late 14c. From herd (n.1). Transitive sense of "to form (animals, people, etc.) into a herd" is from 1590s. Related: Herded; herding.

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recess (n.)

1530s, "act of receding or going back or away" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin recessus "a going back, retreat," from recessum, past participle of recedere "to go back, fall back; withdraw, depart, retire," from re- "back" (see re-) + cedere "to go" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

Meaning "hidden or remote part" is recorded from 1610s; that of "period of stopping from usual work" is from 1620s, probably from parliamentary notion of "recessing" into private chambers. Meaning "place of retirement or seclusion" is from 1630s; that of "niche, receding space or inward indentation in a line of continuity" is from 1690s.

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access (n.)
Origin and meaning of access

early 14c., "an attack of fever," from Old French acces "onslaught, attack; onset (of an illness)," from Latin accessus "a coming to, an approach; way of approach, entrance," noun use of past participle of accedere "to approach," from assimilated form of ad "to" (see ad-) + cedere "go, move, withdraw" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield"). The English sense of "an entrance" (c. 1600) is directly from Latin. The meaning "habit or power of getting into the presence of (someone or something)" is from late 14c.

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wade (v.)

Old English wadan "to go forward, proceed, move, stride, advance" (the modern sense perhaps represented in oferwaden "wade across"), from Proto-Germanic *wadanan (source also of Old Norse vaða, Danish vade, Old Frisian wada, Dutch waden, Old High German watan, German waten "to wade"), from PIE root *wadh- (2) "to go," found only in Germanic and Latin (source also of Latin vadere "to go," vadum "shoal, ford," vadare "to wade"). Italian guado, French gué "ford" are Germanic loan-words.

Specifically "walk into or through water" (or any substance which impedes the free motion of limbs) c. 1200. Originally a strong verb (past tense wod, past participle wad); weak since 16c. Figurative sense of "to go into" (action, battle, etc.) is recorded from late 14c. Related: Waded; wading.

Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne,
And shut the gates of mercy on mankind,
[Gray, from "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard"]
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commute (v.)

mid-15c., "to change (something into something else), transform," from Latin commutare "to often change, to change altogether," from com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move").

Sense of "make less severe" is from 1630s; sense of "exchange, put in place of another" is from 1630s. Meaning "substitute one sort of burden for another" is from 1640s.

Meaning "go back and forth to work" is attested by 1889, from commutation ticket "a season pass" on a railroad, streetcar line, etc. (1848), from commute in its sense of "to change one kind of payment into another" (1795), especially "to combine a number of payments into a single one, pay a single sum instead of a number of successive payments" (1845). Related: Commuted; commuting; commutable.

The noun meaning "a journey made in commuting" is attested by 1960. Also compare commuter.

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