French, "shame on him who thinks evil of it;" proverbial expression recorded from c. 1300, used as motto of the Order of the Garter.
"rapid oscillatory motion observed in very small particles," 1850, for Scottish scientist Dr. Robert Brown (1773-1858), who first described it.
cartoon mouse character created 1928 by U.S. animator Walt Disney (1901-1966). As an adjective meaning "small and worthless, petty, inconsequential" it was in use by 1951, perhaps from the popularity of the cheaply made Mickey Mouse wristwatch; it was used by 1935 in reference to mediocre dance-band music, based on the type of tunes played as background in cartoon films.
Latin, literally "that is (to say)," from id "that," neuter of is, from PIE pronominal stem *i- (see yon). For est, see is. Usually abbreviated i.e. "to write, or even to say, this in the full instead of in the abbreviated form is now so unusual as to convict one of affectation" [Fowler]. It introduces another way to say something already said, not an example of it (which is e.g.).
road between Rome and Capua, so called because it was begun (312 B.C.E.) by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus of the ancient gens of the Appii.
sclerosis of the spinal cord, causing atrophy of the muscles, 1874, in translations from French. Amyotropic is compounded from Greek elements: a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + combining form of mys "muscle" (see muscle (n.)) + trophikos "feeding," from trophe "nourishment" (see -trophy). Also ALS, and often known in U.S. as Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees baseball player who was diagnosed with it in 1939 and died of it in 1941.
"pursuit of anything in ignorance of the direction it will take," hence "a foolish enterprise," 1592, first attested in "Romeo and Juliet," where it evidently is a figurative use of an earlier (but unrecorded) literal sense in reference to a kind of follow-the-leader steeplechase, perhaps from one of the "crazy, silly" senses in goose (n.). Wild goose (as opposed to a domesticated one) is attested in late Old English (wilde gos).
" chronic inflammatory condition of the digestive tract," 1935, for U.S. pathologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, one of the team that wrote the article describing it in 1932.