Etymology
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anecdote (n.)
1670s, "secret or private stories," from French anecdote (17c.) or directly from Medieval Latin anecdota, from Greek anekdota "things unpublished," neuter plural of anekdotos, from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + ekdotos "published," from ek- "out" (see ex-) + didonai "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give").

Procopius' 6c. Anecdota, unpublished memoirs of Emperor Justinian full of court gossip, gave the word a sense of "revelation of secrets," which decayed in English to "brief, amusing story" (1761).
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Adelphi 

district of London, so called because it was laid out c. 1768 and built by four brothers of a family named Adam; from Greek adelphos "brother," literally "from the same womb, co-uterine," from copulative prefix a- "together with" (see a- (3)) + delphys "womb," which is perhaps related to dolphin (q.v.). The district was the site of the popular Adelphi theater c. 1882-1900, which for a time gave its name to a style of performance.

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gavel (n.)
"small mallet used by presiding officers at meetings," 1805, American English, of unknown origin; perhaps connected with German dialectal gaffel "brotherhood, friendly society," from Middle High German gaffel "society, guild," related to Old English gafol "tribute," giefan "to give" (from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive"). But in some sources gavel also is identified as a type of mason's tool, in which case the extended meaning may be via freemasonry. As a verb, by 1887, from the noun. Old English had tabule "wooden hammer struck as a signal for assembly among monks," an extended sense of table (n.).
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belive (v.)
obsolete verb from Old English belifan "remain," intransitive form of belæfan "cause to remain" (see beleave). A general Germanic compound (cognates: Old Saxon bilibhon, Gothic bileiban, Old High German biliban, German bleiben, Dutch blijven). It was confused in early Middle English with beleave and merged into it, which gave beleave two clashing senses ("to leave," also "to remain") which might be why the compound word, the cognate of important verbs in other Germanic languages, was abandoned in English and only leave (v.) remains.
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raisin (n.)
"dried sweet grape," c. 1300, from Anglo-French raycin (late 13c.), Old French raisin "grape; raisin," from Vulgar Latin *racimus, alteration of Latin racemus "cluster of grapes or berries" (also source of Spanish racimo, Italian racemo), probably a loan-word from the same ancient lost Mediterranean language that gave Greek rhax (genitive rhagos) "grape, berry." In Middle English the word also could be used of grapes themselves. Dutch razun also is from French; German Rosine is from an Old French variant form.
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packer (n.)

mid-14c., pakker (mid-13c. as a surname), "one who packs goods in bundles for transportation," agent noun from pack (v.). As "a machine used for packing," by 1890. The Wisconsin U.S. football team was named at its founding in 1919 for the Indian Packing Company (a meat-canning operation where one of the founders worked as a shipping clerk), which gave the team organizers $500 for uniforms and equipment and let it use the company's field on condition that the team be named for its sponsor.

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August 
eighth month, late 11c., from Latin Augustus (mensis), sixth month of the later Roman calendar, renamed from Sextilis (literally "sixth") in 8 B.C.E. to honor emperor Augustus Caesar, literally "Venerable Caesar" (see august (adj.), and compare Augustus). One of two months given new names to honor Roman leaders (July being the other), the Romans also gave new imperial names to September (Germanicus) and October (Domitian) but these did not stick.

In England, the name replaced native Weodmonað "weed month." Traditionally the first month of autumn in Great Britain, the last of summer in the U.S.
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barney (n.)

British slang word of uncertain origin, attested from 1859 as "a fixed or sham prize-fight," also "lark, spree, rough enjoyment;" 1864 as "noisy dispute."

"Notes and Queries," from March 21, 1863, describes Barnard Castle, the market town in Teesdale, as having "no enviable reputation. Longstaffe supposes that Sir George Bowes's refusal to fight with the rebels during the rising of the north, gave rise to the contemptuous distich:

'Coward, a coward of Barney Castell,
Dare not come out to fight a battel' "

And adds that "Come, come, that's a Barna' Cassell," is "a reproof to an exaggerator, or liar."

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Cassandra 

fem. proper name, from Greek Kasandra, Kassandra, daughter of Priam and Hecuba of Troy, seduced by Apollo who gave her the gift of prophecy, but when she betrayed him he amended it so that, though she spoke truth, none would believe her. Used figuratively since 1660s.

The name is of uncertain origin, though the second element looks like a fem. form of Greek andros "of man, male human being." Watkins suggests PIE *(s)kand- "to shine" as source of second element. The name also has been connected to kekasmai "to surpass, excel," and Beekes suggests a source in PIE *(s)kend- "raise."

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Joe Miller (n.)

"stale joke," 1816, from Joseph Miller (1684-1738), a comedian, whose name was affixed after his death to a popular jest-book, "Joe Miller's Jests, or the Wit's Vade-mecum" (1739) compiled by John Mottley, which gave Miller after his death more fame than he enjoyed while alive.

A certain Lady finding her Husband somewhat too familiar with her Chamber-maid, turned her away immediately; Hussy, said she, I have no Occasion for such Sluts as you, only to do that Work which I choose to do myself. [from "Joe Miller's Jests"].
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