Etymology
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co-respondent (n.)

in law, a joint respondent, one proceeded against along with another or others, 1857, from co- + respondent. "[S]pecifically, in Eng. law, a man charged with adultery, and made a party together with the wife to the husband's suit for divorce." [Century Dictionary].

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lactose (n.)
sugar from milk, 1843, from French, coined 1843 by French chemist Jean Baptiste André Dumas (1800-1884) from Latin lac (genitive lactis) "milk" (from PIE root *g(a)lag- "milk") + chemical suffix -ose (2).
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pending (prep.)

1640s, "during, in the process of, for the time of the continuance of," a preposition formed on the model of French pendant "during," literally "hanging," present participle of pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

The meaning is patterned on "not decided" as a secondary sense of Latin pendente (literally "hanging") in the legal phrase pendente lite "while the suit is pending, during the litigation" (with the ablative singular of lis "suit, quarrel"). The use of the present participle before nouns caused it to be regarded as a preposition. As an adjective from 1797.

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yogurt (n.)
also yoghurt, 1620s, a mispronunciation of Turkish yogurt, in which the -g- is a "soft" sound, in many dialects closer to an English "w." The root yog means roughly "to condense" and is related to yogun "intense," yogush "liquify" (of water vapor), yogur "knead."
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clef (n.)

1570s, "character on a staff to indicate its name and pitch," so that the others may be known, from French clef (12c.) "key; musical clef; trigger," from a figurative or transferred use of classical Latin clavis, which had only the literally sense "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook").

In the Middle Ages, the Latin word was used in the Guidonian system for "the lowest note of a scale," which is its basis (see keynote). The most common is the treble, violin, or G-clef, which crosses on the second line of the staff, denoting that as the G above middle C on the piano.

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BASIC 

computer language, 1964, initialism (acronym) for Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; invented by Hungarian-born U.S. computer scientist John G. Kemeny and U.S. computer scientist Thomas E. Kurtz.

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lactic (adj.)
1790, "procured from milk," in the chemical name lactic acid, which is so called because it was obtained from sour milk. From French lactique, from Latin lactis, genitive of lac "milk" (from PIE root *g(a)lag- "milk.") + French -ique (see -ic).
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targe (n.)
"shield, buckler," late Old English, from Old French targe, from Frankish *targa, from Germanic (see target (n.)). Old English had a native form targe, but the soft -g- in the later word indicates it came from French.
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fluorescence (n.)
1852, "property of glowing in ultraviolet light," coined by English mathematician and physicist Sir George G. Stokes (1819-1903) from fluorspar (see fluorine), because in it he first noticed the phenomenon, + -escence, on analogy of phosphorescence.
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impregnable (adj.)
early 15c., imprenable "impossible to capture," from Old French imprenable "invulnerable," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Old French prenable "assailable, vulnerable" (see pregnable). With restored -g- from 16c. Related: Impregnably.
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