Etymology
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litigant (n.)
1650s; earlier as an adjective (1630s), from French litigant or directly from Latin litigantem (nominative litigans), present participle of litigare "to dispute, quarrel, strive, carry on a suit" (see litigation).
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lactescence (n.)
"milky appearance," 1680s, from lactescent "becoming milky" (1660s), from Latin lactescentem (nominative lactescens), present participle of lactescere, inchoative of lactere "to be milky," from lac "milk" (from PIE root *g(a)lag- "milk").
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adaptation (n.)
Origin and meaning of adaptation

c. 1600, "action of adapting (something to something else)," from French adaptation, from Late Latin adaptationem (nominative adaptatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of adaptare "to adjust," from ad "to" (see ad-) + aptare "to join," from aptus "fitted" (see apt).

Meaning "condition of being adapted, state of being fitted to circumstances or relations" is from 1670s. Sense of "modification of a thing to suit new conditions" is from 1790. Biological sense "variations in a living thing to suit changed conditions" first recorded 1859 in Darwin's writings.

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piezoelectric (adj.)

1883, "of or pertaining to piezoelectricity," which is "electricity produced by pressure" (1883), from German piezoelectricität (Wilhelm G. Hankel, 1881); see piezo- + electric. As a noun from 1913.

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lacto- 
before vowels, lac-, word-forming element used in chemistry and physiology from 19c. and meaning "milk," from Latin lac (genitive lactis) "milk," from Proto-Italic *(g)lagt-, from PIE root *g(a)lag- "milk." This and the separate root *melg- (source of milk (n.)) account for words for "milk" in most of the Indo-European languages. The absence of a common word for it is considered a mystery. Middle Irish lacht, Welsh llaeth "milk" are loan words from Latin.
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trimmer (n.)
1550s, "one who trims," agent noun from trim (v.). Meaning "one who changes opinions, actions, etc. to suit circumstances" is from 1680s, from the verb in the nautical sense of "adjust the balance of sails or yards with reference to the wind's direction" (1620s).
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ramekin 

toasted cheese and bread, 1706, from French ramequin (late 17c.), said to be from a Germanic source (compare Middle Low German rom "cream"), from Proto-Germanic *rau(g)ma-, which is of uncertain origin.

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gaol (n.)

see jail (n.), you tea-sodden football hooligan. Formerly in official use in Britain, and thus sometimes regarded in U.S. as a characteristic British spelling (though George Washington used it); by the time of OED 2nd edition (1980s) both spellings were considered correct there; the g- spelling is said to have been dominant longest in Australia.

[T]he very anomalous pronunciation of g soft before other vowels than e, i, & y ... is a strong argument for writing jail [Fowler]
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Branwen 
fem. proper name, from Welsh bran "raven" + (g)wen "fair" (literally "visible," from nasalized form of PIE root *weid- "to see"). Daughter of Llyr, she was a legendary heroine of Wales.
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co-respondent (n.)

in law, a joint respondent, one proceeded against along with another or others, 1857, from co- + respondent. "[S]pecifically, in Eng. law, a man charged with adultery, and made a party together with the wife to the husband's suit for divorce." [Century Dictionary].

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