Etymology
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gadfly (n.)
also gad-fly, 1620s, "fly which bites cattle," probably from gad (n.) "goad, metal rod," here in the sense of "stinger;" but the sense is entangled with gad (v.) "rove about" (on the notion, perhaps, of the insect's power of flight or of the restlessness of animals plagued by them), and another early meaning of gadfly was "someone who likes to go about, often stopping here and there" (1610s). Sense of "one who irritates another" is from 1640s (equivalent of Latin oestrus; see estrus). "In strictness, only the females are gadflies, the males being smaller and quite inoffensive, living on juices of plants" [Century Dictionary]. Earlier bot-fly, from bot "skin parasite" (late 15c.).
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greenhead (n.)
1580s, "young, untrained intellect," from green (adj.) + head (n.). As a type of biting fly with a green-colored head, by 1837.
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pinnate (adj.)

"shaped like a feather; resembling a feather in structure," 1727, from Latin pinnatus "feathered, winged," from pinna "feather, wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").

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potamo- 

word-forming element meaning "river," from Greek potamos "river," perhaps literally "rushing water," from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly."

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mugwort (n.)

the plant Artemisia vulgaris, Old English mugcwyrt, literally "midge wort," from Proto-Germanic *muggiwurti, from *muggjo- "fly" (see midge) + *wurtiz (see wort).

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iopterous (adj.)

"having violet wings," 1855, from Greek ion "violet, violet color" (see iodine) + pteron "wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").

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apteryx (n.)

"kiwi," zoological name for the flightless birds of New Zealand, 1813, Modern Latin, from Greek a- "without" (see a- (3)) + pteryx "wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").

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tower (v.)
c. 1400, "rise high" (implied in towered); see tower (n.). Also, of hawks, "to fly high so as to swoop down on prey" (1590s). Related: Towering.
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caddis (n.)
also caddice, larva of the English May-fly, used for bait, 1650s, of unknown origin, perhaps a diminutive of some sense of cad. Also used of the adult stage of certain neuropterous insects.
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rocket (v.)

"fly straight up, spring like a rocket," 1860, from rocket (n.2). Earlier "to attack with rockets" (1799). Meaning "send up by a rocket" is from 1837. Related: Rocketed; rocketing.

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