Etymology
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runic (adj.)

"pertaining to or consisting of runes," 1660s, from Modern Latin runicus, from Old Norse run (see rune). It also was sometimes used as a general word for the art and decorative styles of early Northern Europe.

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roach (n.2)

common small freshwater fish of northern Europe, late 12c., from Old French roche (13c.), a name of uncertain origin, perhaps from a Germanic source (compare Middle Dutch roch, Low German ruche). Applied later to fish in North America that resemble it.

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longbow (n.)
also long-bow, the bow of war and chase in medieval Europe and the characteristic weapon of the English soldiery, only gradually superseded by firearms; late 14c., from long (adj.) + bow (n.1). Distinguished from the crossbow, but especially of bows five feet or longer.
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Mediterranean 

"the sea between southern Europe and northern Africa," 1590s, earlier Mediterranie (c. 1400), from Late Latin Mediterraneum mare "Mediterranean Sea" (7c.), from Latin mediterraneus "midland, surrounded by land, in the midst of an expanse of land" (but in reference to the body of water between Europe and African the sense probably was "the sea in the middle of the earth"); from medius "middle" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle") + terra "land, earth" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry").

The Old English name was Wendel-sæ, so called for the Vandals, Germanic tribe that settled on the southwest coast of it after the fall of Rome. The noun meaning "a person of Mediterranean race" is by 1888.

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mesolithic (adj.)

1866 in archaeology, "belonging to the middle Stone Age (in Europe, roughly 15,000 to 5,000 years before the present, between the paleolithic and the neolithic);  see meso- "middle" + lithic "consisting of stone." The word was used c. 1859 in a different sense in geology.

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cyclamen (n.)

one of a genus of bulbous plants native to southern Europe and western Asia, 1550s, from Medieval Latin cyclamen, from Latin cyclaminos, from Greek kyklaminos, also kyklamis, from kyklos "circle" (from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round"). So called apparently in reference to the bulbous shape of the root.

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Japan 
1570s, via Portuguese Japao, Dutch Japan, acquired in Malacca from Malay (Austronesian) Japang, from Chinese jih pun, literally "sunrise" (equivalent of Japanese Nippon), from jih "sun" + pun "origin." Japan lies to the east of China. Earliest form in Europe was Marco Polo's Chipangu.
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bhang (n.)
"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
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Westphalia 
former duchy of Germany; the treaties which ended the Thirty Years' War were signed there Oct. 24, 1648 (in Osnabrück and Münster). They established diplomatic protocol and ended the Catholic-Protestant military struggle in Europe. Related: Westphalian.
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shtetl (n.)
Jewish small town or village in Eastern Europe, 1949, from Yiddish, literally "little town," from diminutive of German Stadt "city, town," from Old High German stat "place," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
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