Etymology
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geometry (n.)

early 14c., also gemetrie, gemetry, from Old French geometrie (12c., Modern French géométrie), from Latin geometria, from Greek geometria "measurement of earth or land; geometry," from combining form of "earth, land" (see Gaia) + -metria "a measuring of" (see -metry). Old English used eorðcræft "earth-craft" as a loan-translation of Latin geometria.

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geophysical (adj.)
"relating to the physics of the earth," 1885; see geophysics + -al (1).
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geosphere (n.)
1885, from geo- "earth," probably on model of atmosphere.
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terra (n.)
Latin, "earth," from PIE root *ters- "to dry."
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conterraneous (adj.)

"of the same earth or world," 1640s, from Latin conterraneus, from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + terra "earth, land" (literally "dry land," from PIE root *ters- "to dry"). 

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terrain (n.)
1727, "ground for training horses," from French terrain "piece of earth, ground, land," from Old French (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *terranum, from Latin terrenum "land, ground," noun use of neuter of terrenus "of earth, earthly," from terra "earth, land," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea"); from PIE root *ters- "to dry." Meaning "tract of country, considered with regard to its natural features" first attested 1766.
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perigee (n.)

"point at which a celestial body is nearest the Earth," 1590s, from Modern Latin perigeum (15c.), from Late Greek peregeion, used by Ptolemy as a noun, properly neuter of adjective perigeios "near the earth," from peri ges, from peri "near" (see peri-) + ges, genitive of "earth" (see Gaia). Now only of the moon, formerly used also for the corresponding point in the orbit of any celestial body. Compare apogee.

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tureen (n.)
1706, from French terrine "earthen vessel," from Old French therine (15c.), noun use of fem. of terrin (adj.) "earthen," from Gallo-Roman *terrinus, from Latin terrenus "of the earth," from terra "earth" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry").
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netherworld (n.)
also nether-world, 1630s, "place beneath the earth," from nether + world.
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