Etymology
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retroactive (adj.)

of powers, enactments, etc., "operating with respect to past circumstances, extending to matters which have occurred, holding good for preceding eases," from French rétroactif (16c.) "casting or relating back," from Latin retroact-, past-participle stem of retroagere "drive or turn back," from retro "back" (see retro-) + agere "to drive, set in motion" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Related: Retroactively; retroactivity.

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exterminate (v.)

1540s, "drive away," from Latin exterminatus, past participle of exterminare "drive out, expel, put aside, drive beyond boundaries," also, in Late Latin "destroy," from phrase ex termine "beyond the boundary," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + termine, ablative of termen "boundary, limit, end" (see terminus).

Meaning "destroy utterly" is from 1640s in English, a sense found in equivalent words in French and in the Vulgate; earlier in this sense was extermine (mid-15c.). Related: Exterminated; exterminating.

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dislodge (v.)

"remove or drive from a resting place," c. 1400, disloggen, from Old French deslogier "to leave or cause to leave a lodging place; expel, drive away," from des- "do the opposite of" (see dis-) + logier "to lodge; find lodging for," from loge "hut, cabin" (see lodge (n.)). Related: Dislodged; dislodging.

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essay (n.)

1590s, "trial, attempt, endeavor," also "short, discursive literary composition" (first attested in writings of Francis Bacon, probably in imitation of Montaigne), from French essai "trial, attempt, essay" (in Old French from 12c.), from Late Latin exagium "a weighing, a weight," from Latin exigere "drive out; require, exact; examine, try, test," from ex "out" (see ex-) + agere "to set in motion, drive" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move") apparently meaning here "to weigh." The suggestion is of unpolished writing. Compare assay, also examine.

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shoo (v.)

1620s, "to drive away (birds or other creatures) by calling 'shoo,' " from the exclamation "shoo!" (late 15c., shou), used to drive away hens. Perhaps it is instinctive or particularly effective: compare French chou, German schu, Greek sou, Italian sciò. Related: Shooed; shooing.

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motor (v.)

travel or drive in a motor vehicle," "1896, from motor (n.). Related: Motored; motoring.

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chauffeur (v.)

"convey by car, drive as a chauffeur," 1902, from chauffeur (n.). Related: Chauffeured; chauffeuring.

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eject (v.)
mid-15c., from Latin eiectus "thrown out," past participle of eicere "throw out, cast out, thrust out; drive into exile, expel, drive away," from ex "out" (see ex-) + -icere, combining form of iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). Related: Ejected; ejecting. Ejecta "matter thrown out by a volcano" is from 1851.
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compulsion (n.)

early 15c., "coercion, application of force (to someone) overwhelming his preferences," from Old French compulsion, from Latin compulsionem (nominative compulsio) "a driving, urging," noun of action from past-participle stem of compellere "to drive, force together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").

Psychological sense of "instant impulse to behave in a certain way" is from 1909 in A.A. Brill's translation of Freud's "Selected Papers on Hysteria," where German Zwangsneurose is rendered as compulsion neurosis.

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mill-wheel (n.)

"wheel used to drive a mill," Old English mylnn-hweol; see mill (n.1) + wheel (n.).

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