Etymology
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dying (n.)

late 13c., "death, act of expiring, loss of life," verbal noun from die (v.).

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indurate (adj.)
"hardened, made hard," early 15c., from Latin induratus, past participle of indurare "to make hard, harden," from in- (from PIE root *en "in") + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," from PIE *dru-ro-, suffixed variant form of root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast."
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gasp (n.)
1570s, from gasp (v.). Earliest attested use is in the phrase last gasp "final breath before dying." To gasp up the ghost "die" is attested from 1530s.
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decedent (n.)

1730, "dead person," now mostly as a term in U.S. law, from Latin decedentem, present participle of decedere "to die, to depart" (see decease (n.)).

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end (v.)
Old English endian "to end, finish, abolish, destroy; come to an end, die," from the source of end (n.). Related: Ended; ending.
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callus (n.)
"hardened skin," 1560s, from Latin callus, variant of callum "hard skin," related to callere "be hard," from Proto-Italic *kaln/so- "hard;" PIE source uncertain. Likely cognates are Old Irish calath, calad, Welsh caled "hard;" Old Church Slavonic kaliti "to cool, harden," Russian kalit "to heat, roast," Serbo-Croatian kaliti "to temper, case-harden."
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mortal (adj.)

late 14c., "deadly, destructive to life; causing or threatening death" (of illness, poisons, wounds, etc.); also, of persons or the body, "doomed to die, subject to death;" from Old French mortel "destined to die; deserving of death" and directly from Latin mortalis "subject to death, mortal, of a mortal, human," from mors (genitive mortis) "death."

This is reconstructed to be from PIE *mr-o- "to die," *mr-to- "dead," *mr-ti- "death," all from PIE root *mer- "to rub away, harm" (also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death). The most widespread Indo-European root for "to die," it forms the common word for it except in Greek and Germanic.

"Subject to death," hence "human, of or pertaining to humans" (early 15c.). Also from late 14c. as "implacable, to be satisfied only by death" (of hatreds, enemies, etc.). Meaning "extreme, very great" is from late 14c. A mortal sin (early 15c., opposed to venial) is one that incurs the penalty of spiritual death.

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predecease (v.)

"to die before, precede in dying," 1590s, from pre- "before" + decease (v.). Related: Predeceased; predeceasing.

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dying (adj.)

"in the process of becoming dead, decaying from life," mid-15c., present-participle adjective from die (v.).

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flinty (adj.)
1530s, "hard-hearted;" 1540s, "hard, impenetrable as flint," from flint + -y (2). Literal sense of "resembling flint" is from 1640s. Related: Flintily; flintiness.
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