Etymology
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Kafkaesque (adj.)

1947, resembling such situations as are explored in the fiction of Franz Kafka (1883-1924), German-speaking Jewish novelist born in Prague, Austria-Hungary. The surname is Czech German, literally "jackdaw," and is imitative.

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necking (n.)

"embracing and caressing a member of the opposite sex," 1825; see neck (v.). In architecture, "moldings near the capital of a column."

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zloty (n.)

monetary unit of Poland, 1842, from Polish złoty, literally "of gold," from złoto "gold," related to Russian zoloto, Czech zlato "gold," from suffixed form of PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives denoting gold (the "bright" metal); see gold.

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madder (n.)

type of plant (in modern use Rubia tinctorum) yielding a valuable dyestuff, Old English mædere and Old Norse maðra, from PIE *modhro- "dye plant" (source also of Old High German matara "madder," Polish modry, Czech modry "blue").

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Tokyo 

so named 1868, from Japanese to "east" + kyo "capital;" its earlier name was Edo, literally "estuary."

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Constantinople 

from 330 C.E. to 1930 the name of what is now Istanbul and formerly was Byzantium, the city on the European side of the Bosphorus that served as the former capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, from Greek Konstantinou polis "Constantine's city," named for Roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (see Constantine), who transferred the Roman capital there.

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gammadion (n.)

ornamental figure formed of four capital gammas, Medieval Greek gammadion, diminutive of Greek gamma (see gamma).

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Oslo 

Norwegian capital city, a name probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," in reference to the place's situation.

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Ottawa 

Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."

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sheeney (n.)

"a Jew," 1816, of unknown origin. OED points to Russian zhid, Polish żyd, Czech zid "a Jew." Opprobrious by late 19c. and subsequently a vulgar term of abuse, but it was used before c. 1870 by Jews and Gentiles without apparent intent of insult.

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