mid-12c., scateren, transitive, "to squander;" c. 1300, "to separate and drive off in disorder;" late 14c., "to throw loosely about, strew here and there," possibly a northern English variant of Middle English schateren (see shatter), reflecting Norse influence. The intransitive sense, "go or flee in different directions, disperse" is from c. 1300. As a noun from 1640s, "act or action of scattering;" by 1950 in reference to radio waves.
late 15c., "the violent doing of a bodily hurt to another person," from Anglo-French maihem (13c.), from Old French mahaigne "injury, wrong, a hurt, harm, damage;" related to mahaignier "to injure, wound, mutilate, cripple" (see maim). Originally, in law, the crime of maiming a person "to make him less able to defend himself or annoy his adversary" [OED]. By 19c. it was being used generally of any sort of violent disorder or needless or willful damage or violence.
"a deep, heavy, continuous rattling or dully roaring sound," as of thunder, late 14c., from rumble (v.). From 14c. to 17c. it also meant "confusion, disorder, tumult." The slang noun meaning "gang fight" is by 1946. The meaning "backmost part of a carriage" (typically reserved for servants or luggage) is from 1808 (earlier rumbler, 1801), probably from the effect of sitting over the wheels; hence rumble seat (1828), later transferred to automobiles.
late 14c., "serve up (food) in portions," from mess (n.). Intransitive meaning "to share a mess, take one's meals in company with others" is from 1701; that of "make a mess of, disorder" is by 1853. Related: Messed; messing. To mess with "interfere, get involved" is by 1903; to mess up "make a mistake, get in trouble" is from 1933 (earlier "make disorderly, make a mess of," by 1892), both originally American English colloquial.
"having two poles;" see bi- "two" + polar. It is attested from 1810 in the figurative sense of "of double aspect;" by 1859 with reference to anatomy ("having two processes from opposite poles," of nerve cells). Psychiatric use in reference to what had been called manic-depressive psychosis is said to have begun 1957 with German psychiatrist Karl Leonhard. The term became popular early 1990s. Bipolar disorder was in DSM III (1980).
1667, Pandæmonium, in "Paradise Lost" the name of the palace built in the middle of Hell, "the high capital of Satan and all his peers," and the abode of all the demons; coined by John Milton (1608-1674) from Greek pan- "all" (see pan-) + Late Latin daemonium "evil spirit," from Greek daimonion "inferior divine power," from daimōn "lesser god" (see demon).
Transferred sense "place of uproar and disorder" is from 1779; that of "wild, lawless confusion" is from 1865. Related: Pandemoniac; pandemoniacal; pandemonian; pandemonic.
also dishevelled, early 15c., "without dressed hair," parallel form of dishevel, dischevele (adj.) "bare-headed," late 14c., from Old French deschevele "bare-headed, with shaven head," past-participle adjective from descheveler "to disarrange the hair," from des- "apart" (see dis-) + chevel "hair," from Latin capillus "hair" (see capillary).
Of the hair itself, "hanging loose and throw about in disorder, having a disordered or neglected appearance," from mid-15c. General sense of "with disordered dress" is from c. 1600.
1520s, "outbreak of disorder, revolt, commotion," used by Tindale and later Coverdale as a loan-translation of German Aufruhr or Dutch oproer "tumult, riot," literally "a stirring up," in German and Dutch bibles (as in Acts xxi.38). From German auf (Middle Dutch op) "up" (see up (adv.)) + ruhr (Middle Dutch roer) "a stirring, motion," related to Old English hreran "to move, stir, shake" (see rare (adj.2)). Meaning "noisy shouting" is first recorded 1540s, probably by mistaken association with unrelated roar.
disorder that primarily affects the lymph glands, c. 1400 (Lanfranc), scrophula, from Medieval Latin scrofulæ (plural) "swelling of the glands of the neck," literally "little pigs," from Latin scrofa "breeding sow" (see screw (n.)). The connection may be because the glands associated with the disease resemble the body of a sow or some part of it, or because pigs were thought to be prone to it. Compare Greek khoirades (plural) "scrofula," related to khoiros "young pig." Old English had the word as scrofell.
"mental disorder characterized by systematized delusions of more or less definite scope," 1848 (earlier paranoea 1811), from Greek paranoia "mental derangement, madness," from paranoos "mentally ill, insane," from para- "beside, beyond" (see para- (1)) + noos "mind," which is of uncertain origin.
FOR several years frequent descriptions have been given in the foreign journals, especially German and Italian, of the forms of insanity designated by the names Paranoia, Verrücktkeit, and Wahnsinn. ["Paranoia — Systematized Delusions and Mental Degenerations," J. Séglas (transl. William Noyes), 1888]