Etymology
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resignation (n.)

late 14c., resignacioun, "abdication, act of resigning" (an office, claim, etc.), from Old French resignation, resignacion (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin resignationem (nominative resignatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin resignare "annul, cancel, give back, resign" (see resign). Resignment also was used.

From c. 1500 ("Imitation of Christ") as "surrender to God, resignation to God." The non-spiritual meaning "quiet submission, unresisting acquiescence" is from 1640s.

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exclaim (v.)

"to cry out, speak with vehemence, make a loud outcry in words," 1560s, a back-formation from exclamation or else from French exclamer (16c.), from Latin exclamare "cry out loud, call out," from ex "out," perhaps here an intensive prefix (see ex-), + clamare "cry, shout, call" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout"). Spelling influenced by claim. Related: Exclaimed; exclaiming.

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pretense (n.)

also pretence, early 15c., "the putting forth of a claim; false or hypocritical profession, feigning, disguise, that under cover of which an actual design or meaning is concealed," also "a stated ground or reason, an assertion of a legal right," from Anglo-French pretensse(Modern French prétense), from Medieval Latin pretensio, noun of action from Late Latin praetensus, altered from Latin praetentus, past participle of praetendere  "stretch in front, put forward; allege" (see pretend (v.)).

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deductible (adj.)

1856, "capable of being withdrawn," especially from one's taxes or income, with -ible + Latin deducere "lead down, derive" (in Medieval Latin, "infer logically"), from de "down" (see de-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead"). As a noun, "amount of a loss which must be borne by the policy-holder in an insurance claim," by 1927. The older adjective is deducible (1610s).

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shipwreck (n.)
mid-15c., from ship (n.) + wreck (n.). Earlier it meant "things cast up from a shipwreck" (c. 1100). The earlier word for "shipwreck" in the modern sense was Middle English schipbreke, "'ship-break,'" from a North Sea Germanic word; compare West Frisian skipbrek, Middle Dutch schipbroke, German Schiffbruch, Old English scipgebroc. Old English scipbryce meant "right to claim goods from a wrecked ship."
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dibs (interj.)

children's word to express a claim on something, 1915, originally U.S., apparently from earlier senses "a portion or share" and "money" (early 19c. colloquial), probably a contraction of dibstone "a knuckle-bone or jack in a children's game" (1690s), in which the first element is of unknown origin. The game consisted of tossing up small pebbles or the knuckle-bones of a sheep and catching them alternately with the palm and the back of the hand.

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avenge (v.)
"vindicate by inflicting pain or evil on the wrongdoer," late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger), from Latin vindicare "to claim, avenge, punish" (see vindication). See revenge (v.) for distinction of use. Related: Avenged; avenging. As a noun to go with it, 16c. English tried avenge, avengeance, avengement, avenging.
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pretender (n.)

1590s, "one who intends;" 1620s as "one who puts forth a claim;" agent noun from pretend (v.). Specifically of a claimant to the English throne from 1690s, especially the Old and Young Pretenders, the son and grandson of James II who asserted claims to the throne against the Hanoverians. Meaning "one who feigns, one who makes a false show, one who puts forth a claim without adequate grounds" is from 1630s.

Having been a spectator of the battle of the Boyne, on the first of July 1690, he thought it most prudent, while the fate of the day was yet undecided, to seek for safety in flight. In a few hours he reached the castle of Dublin, where he was met by Lady Tyrconnel, a woman of spirit. "Your countrymen (the Irish), Madam," said James, as he was ascending the stairs, "can run well."—"Not quite so well as your Majesty," retorted her Ladyship ; "for I see you have won the race." [anecdote of the Old Pretender, first, as far as I can tell, in Charles Wilson's "Polyanthea," 1804]
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stake (v.1)

early 13c., staken, "fasten to a stake, tether," from stake (n.1). Also "to impale" (c. 1400). From c. 1400 as "support (a vine, etc.) with stakes, provide with stakes or poles."

From early 14c. as "divide or lay off and mark (land) with stakes or posts," now usually with out (mid-15c.) or off . Hence, stake a claim "make and register a land claim" (1857, American English), often in a figurative sense (by 1876). Meaning "to maintain surveillance (of a place) to detect criminal activity" (usually stake out) is recorded by 1942, American English, probably from the earlier sense of "mark off territory." Related: Staked; staking.

Compare Middle Dutch, Middle Low German staken, also from the nouns, and Old French estachier, Spanish estacar, from their respective nouns, which were borrowed from Germanic. Old English had stacung "piercing of an effigy by a pin or stake" (in witchcraft); staccan "pierce with a stake, spit."

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pull (n.)

c. 1300, pul, "a fishing net;" mid-14c., "a turn at pulling," from pull (v.). From late 14c. as "an act of pulling." From mid-14c. as "a short space of time." By 1570s as "a drink, a swig of liquor."

Meaning "personal or private influence, advantageous claim to one who has influence" is by 1889, American English, from earlier sense "power to pull (and not be pulled by)" a rival or competitor (1580s).

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