Etymology
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gyre (n.)
1560s, "a circular motion," from Latin gyrus "circle, circular course, round, ring," from Greek gyros "a circle, ring," related to gyrós "rounded," perhaps from PIE root *geu- "to bend, curve" (source also of Armenian kor "crooked," Lithuanian gurnas "hip, ankle, bone," Norwegian kaure "a curly lock of hair"). The noun is attested in Middle English only in reference to ship's tackle (early 15c.).
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quadrant (n.)

late 14c., "a quarter of a day, six hours," from Old French quadrant, cadran, name of a Roman coin, also "a sundial," from Latin quadrantem (nominative quadrans) "a fourth part, a quarter," also the name of a coin worth a quarter of an as; noun use of the present participle of quadrare "to make square; put in order, arrange, complete; run parallel, be exact," figuratively "to fit, suit, be proper," related to quadrus "a square," quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four").

From 1570s as "the quarter of a circle, the arc of a circle containing 90 degrees." The ancient surveying instrument for measuring altitudes is so called from c. 1400, because it forms a quarter circle. Related: Quadrantal.

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corral (v.)

1847, "to drive into a corral," from corral (n.). From 1848 as "to form a circle with wagons." Meaning "to lay hold of, collar, capture, make a prisoner of" is U.S. slang from 1860. Related: Corralled.

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encyclopedia (n.)

1530s, "general course of instruction," from Modern Latin encyclopaedia (c. 1500), thought to be a false reading by Latin authors of Greek enkyklios paideia taken as "general education," but literally "training in a circle," i.e. the "circle" of arts and sciences, the essentials of a liberal education; from enkyklios "circular," also "general" (from en "in;" see in + kyklos "circle;" from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round") + paideia "education, child-rearing," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" (see pedo-).

Modern sense of "reference work arranged alphabetically" is from 1640s, often applied specifically to the French Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des Sciences, des Arts, et des Métiers (1751-65). Related: Encyclopedist.

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concentric (adj.)

"having a common center," c. 1400, from Old French concentrique, from Medieval Latin concentricus, from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + Latin centrum "circle, center" (see center (n.)).

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chakra (n.)

1888 in yoga sense "a spiritual center of power in the human body," from Sanskrit cakra "circle, wheel," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round."

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whirl (v.)
c. 1300, probably from Old Norse hvirfla "to go round, spin," related to hvirfill "circle, ring, crown," and to Old English hweorfan "to turn" (see wharf). Related: Whirled; whirling. Whirlybird "helicopter" is from 1951.
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chukker (n.)

also chucker, chukka, "period in a polo game," 1898, from Hindi chakkar, from Sanskrit cakra "circle, wheel," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round."

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orbicular (adj.)

"round, circular, spherical, having the shape of an orb," mid-15c., from Old French orbiculaire "round, circular," or directly from Late Latin orbicularis "circular, orbicular," from Latin orbiculus, diminutive of orbis "circle" (see orb). Related: Orbicularity.

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octant (n.)

instrument for making angular measurements in navigation or astronomy, 1731, from Late Latin octans "the eighth part," from octo "eight" (see octa-) on analogy of quadrant. In geometry, "the eighth part of a circle," by 1750.

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