Etymology
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Rh. 

chemical symbol of rhodium (q.v.). 

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molecule (n.)

1794, "extremely minute particle," from French molécule (1670s), from Modern Latin molecula, diminutive of Latin moles "mass, barrier" (see mole (n.3)). For ending see -cule. It has a vague meaning at first; the vogue for the word (used until late 18c. only in Latin form) can be traced to the philosophy of Descartes. First used of Modern Latin molecula in modern scientific sense ("smallest part into which a substance can be divided without destroying its chemical character") is by Amedeo Avogadro (1811).

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insubstantial (adj.)
c. 1600, from Medieval Latin insubstantialis "not substantial," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Late Latin substantialis "having substance or reality, material," in Late Latin "pertaining to the substance or essence," from substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). Related: Insubstantially.
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voltaic (adj.)
1813, designating electricity produced by chemical action, formed in recognition of Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), who perfected a chemical process used in electrical batteries, + -ic.
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consubstantial (adj.)

"having the same substance or essence," late 14c., a term in the theology of the Trinity, from Church Latin consubstantialis "of like essence, nature, or substance," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). In general use from 1570s. Related: Consubstantially; consubstantiality; consubstantialism.

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substantive (adj.)
mid-15c., "standing by itself," from Old French substantif, from Late Latin substantivus "of substance or being, self-existent," from Latin substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). The grammatical term (late 14c.) was introduced by the French to denote the noun in contradistinction to the adjective, from Latin nomen substantivum "name or word of substance." Related: Substantival; substantively.
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amalgam (n.)
c. 1400, "a blend of mercury with another metal; soft mass formed by chemical manipulation," from Old French amalgame or directly from Medieval Latin amalgama, "alloy of mercury (especially with gold or silver)," c. 1300, an alchemists' word, probably from Arabic al-malgham "an emollient poultice or unguent for sores (especially warm)" [Francis Johnson, "A Dictionary of Persian, Arabic, and English"], which is itself perhaps from Greek malagma "softening substance," from malassein "to soften," from malakos "soft" (from PIE *meldh-, from root *mel- (1) "soft"). Figurative meaning "compound of different things" is from 1790.
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scandium (n.)
1879, from Modern Latin Scandia (see Scandinavia) + chemical ending -ium.
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weapons of mass destruction (n.)

"nuclear, biological and chemical weapons" attested by 1946, apparently first used (in Russian) by the Soviets.

The terms "weapons of mass destruction" and "WMD" mean chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, and chemical, biological, and nuclear materials used in the manufacture of such weapons. [United States Code: Title 50, "War and National Defense," chapter 43, § 2902, 2009]
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substantiate (v.)
1650s, "to make real, to give substance to," from Modern Latin substantiatus, past participle of substantiare, from Latin substantia "being, essence, material" (see substance). Meaning "to demonstrate or prove" is attested from 1803. Related: Substantiated; substantiating.
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