Etymology
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Bern 

Swiss capital, probably originally from PIE *ber- "marshy place," but by folk etymology from German Bär "bear" (compare Berlin). Related: Bernese.

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A-line (adj.)

descriptive of a dress or skirt flared in shape of a capital letter "A," 1955, in reference to the creations of French fashion designer Christian Dior (1905-1957).

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Madrid 

Spanish capital, of unknown origin; first attested 932 as Majerit. Adjectival form is Madrilenian. Noun meaning "person or thing from Madrid" is Madrileño, Madrileña.

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ficus (n.)

c. 1400, from Latin ficus "fig, fig tree" (see fig). With capital letter, as the name of a large genus of trees and shrubs, chosen by Linnaeus (1753).

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republicanism (n.)

1680s, "republican principles; a republican form of government," from republican (adj.) + -ism. With capital R-, in reference to the modern U.S. Republican Party by 1856.

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Bogota 

capital of Colombia, founded 1530s, the name is from Chibcha (an indigenous language) Bacata, native name of a settlement of the Muisca people that stood there when the Spanish arrived.

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Lacedaemonian (adj.)

"pertaining to Sparta," 1709, from Latin Lacedaemonius, from Greek Lakedaimonios, from Lakedaimon, an ancient Greek name for Sparta as the capital of Lakonia (see laconic). From 1713 as a noun.

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Dublin 

capital of Ireland, literally "black pool," from Irish dubh "black" + linn "pool." In reference to the dark waters of the River Liffey. Related: Dubliner.

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Sarajevo 

capital of Bosnia, founded 15c. and named in Turkish as Bosna-Saray, "Palace on the (River) Bosna," from saray (see caravanserai); the modern name is a Slavic adjectival form of saray.

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Paris 

capital of France, from Gallo-Latin Lutetia Parisorum (in Late Latin also Parisii), name of a fortified town of the Gaulish tribe of the Parisii, who had a capital there; literally "Parisian swamps" (see Lutetian).

The tribal name is of unknown origin, but it is traditionally derived from a Celtic par "boat" (perhaps related to Greek baris; see barge (n.)), hence the ship on the city's coat of arms.

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