Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."
Swiss capital, probably originally from PIE *ber- "marshy place," but by folk etymology from German Bär "bear" (compare Berlin). Related: Bernese.
descriptive of a dress or skirt flared in shape of a capital letter "A," 1955, in reference to the creations of French fashion designer Christian Dior (1905-1957).
Spanish capital, of unknown origin; first attested 932 as Majerit. Adjectival form is Madrilenian. Noun meaning "person or thing from Madrid" is Madrileño, Madrileña.
c. 1400, from Latin ficus "fig, fig tree" (see fig). With capital letter, as the name of a large genus of trees and shrubs, chosen by Linnaeus (1753).
capital of Ireland, literally "black pool," from Irish dubh "black" + linn "pool." In reference to the dark waters of the River Liffey. Related: Dubliner.
capital of Colombia, founded 1530s, the name is from Chibcha (an indigenous language) Bacata, native name of a settlement of the Muisca people that stood there when the Spanish arrived.
"pertaining to Sparta," 1709, from Latin Lacedaemonius, from Greek Lakedaimonios, from Lakedaimon, an ancient Greek name for Sparta as the capital of Lakonia (see laconic). From 1713 as a noun.
capital of France, from Gallo-Latin Lutetia Parisorum (in Late Latin also Parisii), name of a fortified town of the Gaulish tribe of the Parisii, who had a capital there; literally "Parisian swamps" (see Lutetian).
The tribal name is of unknown origin, but it is traditionally derived from a Celtic par "boat" (perhaps related to Greek baris; see barge (n.)), hence the ship on the city's coat of arms.