"assembly, council in a Middle Eastern land" (later, especially, with capital M-, the Persian national assembly), 1821, from Arabic majlis "assembly," literally "session," from jalasa "he sat down."
1791, "man of money, one who has large property employed in business," from French capitaliste, a coinage of the Revolution and a term of reproach; see capital (n.2) + -ist; also compare capitalism.
"papal envoy, permanent diplomatic agent representing the Pope at a national capital," 1520s, from older Italian nuncio (now nunzio), from Latin nuntius "messenger," from PIE root *neu- "to shout."
c. 1300, "head, leader, captain; the principal or most important part of anything;" from Old French chief "leader, ruler, head" of something, "capital city" (10c., Modern French chef), from Vulgar Latin *capum, from Latin caput "head," also "leader, chief person; summit; capital city" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").
The meaning "head of a clan" is attested from 1570s; it was later extended to headmen of Native American tribes (by 1713; William Penn, 1680s, called them kings). Commander-in-chief is attested from 1660s.
capital of the Czech Republic, Czech Praha, perhaps from an ancient Slavic word related to Czech pražiti, a term for woodland cleared by burning. Popular etymology is from Czech prah "threshold." Related: Praguean; Praguian.
ancient capital city of Assyria, near Mosul in modern Iraq, from Akkadian (Semitic) Ni-nu-a, which is of uncertain origin but perhaps contains the name of a patron goddess. Related: Ninevite.
by 1851 as a shortening of medic. As a colloquial shortening of medicine, by 1942. With a capital M and short for Mediterranean, by 1948. Meds as a shortening of medications is attested in hospital jargon by 1965.
in architecture, "one of the main stalks on the second row of a Corinthian capital," 1560s, from Latin caulis "stem or stalk of a plant" (see cole (n.1)). The literal sense in English is from 1870.
c. 1400, "fortune, chance," shortening of aventure (n.), a variant of adventure (n.); also from Anglo-French venture. Sense of "risky undertaking" first recorded 1560s; meaning "enterprise of a business nature" is recorded from 1580s. Venture capital is attested from 1943.