Etymology
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Ottawa 

Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."

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Oslo 

Norwegian capital city, a name probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," in reference to the place's situation.

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Bern 

Swiss capital, probably originally from PIE *ber- "marshy place," but by folk etymology from German Bär "bear" (compare Berlin). Related: Bernese.

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A-line (adj.)

descriptive of a dress or skirt flared in shape of a capital letter "A," 1955, in reference to the creations of French fashion designer Christian Dior (1905-1957).

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Madrid 

Spanish capital, of unknown origin; first attested 932 as Majerit. Adjectival form is Madrilenian. Noun meaning "person or thing from Madrid" is Madrileño, Madrileña.

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ficus (n.)

c. 1400, from Latin ficus "fig, fig tree" (see fig). With capital letter, as the name of a large genus of trees and shrubs, chosen by Linnaeus (1753).

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Dublin 

capital of Ireland, literally "black pool," from Irish dubh "black" + linn "pool." In reference to the dark waters of the River Liffey. Related: Dubliner.

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republicanism (n.)

1680s, "republican principles; a republican form of government," from republican (adj.) + -ism. With capital R-, in reference to the modern U.S. Republican Party by 1856.

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Bogota 

capital of Colombia, founded 1530s, the name is from Chibcha (an indigenous language) Bacata, native name of a settlement of the Muisca people that stood there when the Spanish arrived.

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moldy (adj.)

also mouldy, "overgrown or covered with mold, decaying," 1570s, earlier mowly (late 14c.), from mold (n.2) + -y (2). Related: Moldiness.

Your most beautiful bit, that hath all eyes upon her,
That her honesty sells for a hogo of honour ;
Whose lightness and brightness do shine in such splendor,
That none but the stars are thought fit to attend her :
Though now she be pleasant and sweet to the sense,
Will be damnably mouldy a hundred years hence. 
[Thomas Jordan, 17c.]
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