1660s, "distention with air or other gasses," from Modern Latin, from Greek emphysema "swelling, inflation" (of the bowels, etc.), from emphysan "to blow in, inflate; to play the flute," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + physan "to blow," from physa "breath, blast" (see pustule). Related: Emphysematous (adj.).
"divination by smoke," c. 1600, with -mancy "divination by means of" + Latinized form of Greek kapnos "smoke," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps a non-Indo-European substrate word that also produced Lithuanian kvapas "breath, smell," kvepiu, kvėpti "to gasp, breathe," Latvian kvept "to smoke, smell," and perhaps Latin vapor.
It forms all or part of: anemo-; anemometer; anemone; anima; animadversion; animadvert; animal; animalcule; animalistic; animate; animation; animatronic; anime; animism; animosity; animus; Enid; equanimity; longanimity; magnanimous; pusillanimous; unanimous.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit aniti "breathes;" Greek anemos "wind;" Latin animus "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers, consciousness, sensibility; courage, desire," anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling;" Old Irish anal, Welsh anadl "breath," Old Irish animm "soul;" Gothic uzanan "to exhale," Old Norse anda "to breathe," Old English eðian "to breathe;" Old Church Slavonic vonja "smell, breath;" Armenian anjn "soul."
1650s, "the study of the soul," from Modern Latin psychologia, probably coined mid-16c. in Germany by Melanchthon from Latinized form of Greek psykhē "breath, spirit, soul" (see psyche) + logia "study of" (see -logy). The meaning "science or study of the phenomena of the mind" is attested by 1748, in reference to Christian Wolff's "Psychologia empirica" (1732). The modern behavioral sciences sense is from the early 1890s.
"moved or played by means of air; of or pertaining to air or gases," 1650s, from Latin pneumaticus "of the wind, belonging to the air," from Greek pneumatikos "of wind or air" (which is attested mainly as "of spirit, spiritual"), from pneuma (genitive pneumatos) "the wind," also "breath" (see pneuma). Earlier was pneumatical (c. 1600). The pneumatic-dispatch tube was so called by 1859 (in Paris, pneumatique).
plural of die (n.), early 14c., des, dys, plural of dy, altered 14c. to dyse, dyce, and 15c. to dice. "As in pence, the plural s retains its original breath sound, probably because these words were not felt as ordinary plurals, but as collective words" [OED]. Sometimes used as singular 1400-1700. Dice-box "box from which dice are thrown in gaming" is from 1550s.
c. 1300, "immediate influence of God or a god," especially that under which the holy books were written, from Old French inspiracion "inhaling, breathing in; inspiration" (13c.), from Late Latin inspirationem (nominative inspiratio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin inspirare "blow into, breathe upon," figuratively "inspire, excite, inflame," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + spirare "to breathe" (see spirit (n.)). ,
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. [Genesis ii.7]
The sense evolution seems to be from "breathe into" to "infuse animation or influence," thus "affect, rouse, guide or control," especially by divine influence. Inspire (v.) in Middle English also was used to mean "breath or put life or spirit into the human body; impart reason to a human soul." Literal sense "act of inhaling" attested in English from 1560s. Meaning "one who inspires others" is attested by 1867.