"large block of mountains, more or less distinctly defined; a central mountain mass, the dominant part of a range of mountains," 1885, from French massif "bulky, solid" (see massive), also used as a noun in French, as in Massif Central, name of the plateau in the middle of southern France.
1857, in golf, from stymie (n.) "condition in which an opponent's ball blocks the hole" (1834); of uncertain origin, perhaps from Scottish stymie "person who sees poorly," from stime "the least bit" (early 14c.), itself of uncertain origin. General sense of "block, hinder, thwart" is from 1902. Related: Stymied.
"a shoot, sucker," c. 1600, from Latin stolonem (nominative stolo) "a shoot, branch, sucker," cognate with Greek stēlē "standing block," stelekhos "trunk, stem, log;" from PIE *stol-on-, suffixed form of root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place.
"monument consisting of a single large block of stone," 1829, from French monolithe (16c.), from Latin monolithus (adj.) "consisting of a single stone," from Greek monolithos "made of one stone," from monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + lithos "stone" (see litho-). Transferred and figurative use in reference to a thing or person noted for indivisible unity is from 1934.
"barrier across a stream of water to obstruct its flow and raise its level," c. 1400 (early 13c. in surnames), probably from Old Norse dammr or Middle Dutch dam, both from Proto-Germanic *dammaz (source also of Old Frisian damm, German Damm), which is of unknown origin. Also perhaps in part from or reinforced by Old English verb fordemman "to stop up, block."