Etymology
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repentance (n.)

c. 1300, repentaunce, "state of being penitent, sorrow and contrition for sin or wrongdoing resulting in vigorous abandonment of it in one's life," from Old French repentance "penitence" (12c.), from present-participle stem of repentir (see repent).

Repentance goes beyond feeling to express distinct purposes of turning from sin to righteousness; the Bible word most often translated repentance means a change of mental and spiritual attitude toward sin. [Century Dictionary]
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Sabean (n.)

also Sabaean, an inhabitant of the region of Arabia now known as Yemen, from Latin Sabaeus, from Greek Sabaios "the people of Saba" (which the ancients believed to be a city), from Arabic Saba', a name variously explained in Biblical literature. The tribes are mentioned obscurely in the Bible (Hebrew Sheba). In ancient times it was an important transit route to Europe for spices, perfumes, and precious stones from India.

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seer (n.)

late 14c., "one to whom divine revelations are made, prophet, person who sees or foretells future events," agent noun from see (v.). Originally rendering Latin videns, Greek bleptor (rendering Hebrew roeh) in Bible translations (such as I Kings ix.9). The rare literal sense of "one who sees or can see, a beholder, witness, watcher" is attested from early 15c.

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Douai 

or Douay, name of town in northern France, used elliptically in reference to the English translation of the Bible begun there late 16c., sanctioned by Roman Catholic Church. Also called Rhemish or  Rheims-Douai translation because it was published in Rheims in 1582. It uses more Latinate words than Tyndale or the KJV. The place name is from the Gaulish personal name Dous + Gallo-Roman -acum.

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Elohim 

a name of God in the Bible, c. 1600, from Hebrew, plural (of majesty?) of Eloh "God" (cognate with Allah), a word of unknown etymology, perhaps an augmentation of El "God," also of unknown origin. Generally taken as singular, the use of this word instead of Yahveh is taken by biblical scholars as an important clue to authorship in the Old Testament, hence Elohist (1830; Elohistic is from 1841), title of the supposed writer of passages of the Pentateuch where the word is used.

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curlew (n.)

"type of grallatorial bird with a long, slender, curved bill," mid-14c., curlu, from Old French courlieu (13c., Modern French courlis), said to be imitative of the bird's cry but apparently assimilated with corliu "runner, messenger," from corre "to run," (from Latin currere "to run, move quickly," from PIE root *kers- "to run"). The bird is a good runner. In Middle English the word sometimes also meant "quail," especially in Bible translations.

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magi (n.)

c. 1200, "skilled magicians, astrologers," from Latin magi, plural of magus "magician, learned magician," from Greek magos, a word used for the Persian learned and priestly class as portrayed in the Bible (said by ancient historians to have been originally the name of a Median tribe), from Old Persian magush "magician" (see magic). Also, in Christian history, the "wise men" who, according to Matthew, came from the east to Jerusalem to do homage to the newborn Christ (late 14c.). Related: Magian.

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lectio difficilior 
Latin, literally "harder reading," from phrase maxim difficilior lectio potior. In textual reconstruction (of the Bible, etc.) the rule that, of two alternative manuscript readings, the one whose meaning is less obvious is less likely to be a copyist's alteration, and therefore should be given precedence. From lectio, noun of action from past participle stem of legere "to read," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."
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authorize (v.)

late 14c., auctorisen, autorisen, "give formal approval or sanction to," also "confirm as authentic or true; regard (a book) as correct or trustworthy," from Old French autoriser, auctoriser "authorize, give authority to" (12c.) and directly from Medieval Latin auctorizare, from auctor (see author (n.)). Meaning "give authority or legal power to" is from mid-15c. Modern spelling from late 16c. Related: Authorized; authorizing. Authorized Version as a popular name for the 1611 ("King James") English Bible is by 1811.

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Vulgate (n.)
Latin translation of the Bible, especially that completed in 405 by St. Jerome (c.340-420), c. 1600, from Medieval Latin Vulgata, from Late Latin vulgata "common, general, ordinary, popular" (in vulgata editio "popular edition"), from Latin vulgata, fem. past participle of vulgare "make common or public, spread among the multitude," from vulgus "the common people" (see vulgar). So called because the translations made the book accessible to the common people of ancient Rome.
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