Etymology
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Basque 

1811 (adj. and n.), from French, from Spanish vasco (adj.), from vascon (n.), from Latin Vascones (Vasconia was the Roman name for the up-country of the western Pyrenees), said by von Humboldt to originally mean "foresters" but more likely a Latinized version of the people's name for themselves, euskara or eskuara.

This contains a basic element -sk- which is believed to relate to maritime people or sailors, and which is also found in the name of the Etruscans .... [Room, "Placenames of the World," 2006]

Earlier in English was Basquish (1610s, noun and adjective); Baskles (plural noun, late 14c.; compare Old French Basclois); Baskon (n., mid-15c.). Biscayan also was used. In Middle English Basques were not always distinguished from Spaniards and Gascons.

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Batavia 
former name of Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, when it was the Dutch East Indies, a colony of the Netherlands; from Batavia, an ancient name for a region of Holland at the mouth of the Rhine, from Latin Batavi, a people who dwelt between the Rhine and the Waal on the island of Betawe. Related: Batavian.
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Battenberg (n.)
type of cake, 1903, from name of a town in Germany, the seat of a family which became known in Britain as Mountbatten.
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Bauhaus (n.)
1923, from German Bauhaus, literally "architecture-house;" name of a school of design founded in Weimar, Germany, 1919 by Walter Gropius (1883-1969), later extended to the principles it embodied. First element is bau "building, construction, structure," from Old High German buan "to dwell" (from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow"). For second element, see house (n.).
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Bavaria 
German Bayern, Medieval Latin Boiaria, named for the Boii, the ancient Celtic people who once lived there (also see Bohemia). Related: Bavarian.
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Baxter 
surname, Middle English Bacestere (11c.), literally "baker;" see bake (v.) + -ster. Compare Old English bæcestre, fem. of bæcere "baker," which seems to suggest the surname meant "female baker," but Reaney ("Dictionary of English Surnames") notes Baxter is found mainly in the Anglian counties and is used chiefly of men. Only two examples have been noted with a woman's christian name."
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Bayard (n.)
generic or mock-heroic name for a horse, mid-14c., from Old French Baiard, name of the bay-colored magic steed given by Charlemagne to Renaud in the legends, from Old French baiart "bay-colored" (see bay (adj.)). Also by early 14c. proverbial as a blind person or thing, for now-unknown reasons.

The name later was used attributively of gentlemen of exceptional courage and integrity, in this sense from Pierre du Terrail, seigneur de Bayard (1473-1524), French knight celebrated as Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche. The surname is perhaps in reference to hair color.
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Bearnaise (n.)
"egg-and-butter sauce," 1877, from French sauce béarnaise, from fem. of béarnais "of Béarn," region in southwest France (named for the Benarni, a Gaulish tribe).
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Beatles (n.)
seminal rock and pop group formed in Liverpool, England; named as such 1960 (after a succession of other names), supposedly by then-bassist Stuart Sutcliffe, from beetles (on model of Buddy Holly's band The Crickets) with a pun on the musical sense of beat. Their global popularity dates to 1963.
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Beatrice 
fem. proper name, from French Béatrice, from Latin beatrix, fem. of beatricem "who makes happy," from beatus "happy, blessed," past participle of beare "make happy, bless," which is possibly from PIE *dweye-, suffixed form of root *deu- (2) "to do, perform; show favor, revere." De Vaan finds the connection "semantically attractive, but the morphology is unclear."
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