Etymology
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lawyer (n.)

late 14c. lauier, lawer, lawere (mid-14c. as a surname), "one versed in law, one whose profession is suits in court or client advice on legal rights," from Middle English lawe "law" (see law) + -iere. Spelling with -y- predominated from 17c. (see -yer). In the New Testament (Luke xiv.3, etc.) "interpreter of Mosaic law." Old English had lahwita, with wita "sage, wise man; adviser councilor," and an earlier Middle English word for "lawyer" was man-of-law (mid-14c.). Related: Lawyerly.

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obstreperous (adj.)

"clamorous, noisy, boisterous, especially in opposition," c. 1600, from Latin obstreperus "clamorous," from obstrepere "drown with noise, make a noise against, oppose noisily," from ob "against" (see ob-) + strepere "make a noise," from PIE *strep-, said to be imitative (compare Latin stertare "to snore," Old Norse þrefa "to quarrel," þrapt "chattering, gossip," Old English þræft "quarrel"). But de Vaan writes, "It is uncertain that *strep- goes back to PIE, since it is only found in Latin and Germanic." Extended sense of "resisting control, management, or advice" is by 1650s. Related: Obstreperously; obstreperousness.

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unready (adj.)
mid-14c., "not prepared," from un- (1) "not" + ready (adj.).

In English history, applied from c. 1200 (Etheldredus Unrad) to Anglo-Saxon King Æðelræd II (968-1016), where it preserves Middle English unredi, a different adjective, from Old English ungeræd "ill-advised, rede-less, no-counsel" and plays on the king's name (which means "good-counsel"). Old English ræd "advice, counsel" is related to read (v.). Rede "counsel" survived in poetic usage to 17c. An attempted revival by Scott (19c.) failed, though it is used in Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings."
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consultation (n.)

early 15c., "a meeting of persons to consult together;" 1540s, "act of consulting," from Latin consultationem (nominative consultatio) "a mature deliberation, consideration," noun of action from past-participle stem of consultare "to consult, ask counsel of; reflect, consider maturely," frequentative of consulere "to deliberate, consider," originally probably "to call together," as in consulere senatum "to gather the senate" (to ask for advice), from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) +  *selere "take, gather," for a total sense of "gather (the Senate) together," from PIE *selho- "to take, seize."

De Vaan writes: "Since consuleredoes not look like a derivative of consul (we would rather expect consulare), it appears that the verb was original and meant 'to get together, deliberate'."

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preach (v.)

Middle English prechen, "deliver a sermon, proclaim the Gospel," from late Old English predician, a loan word from Church Latin; reborrowed 12c. as preachen, from Old French preechier "to preach, give a sermon" (11c., Modern French précher), from Late Latin praedicare "to proclaim publicly, announce" (in Medieval Latin "to preach," source also of Spanish predicar), from Latin prae "before" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before") + dicare "to proclaim, to say" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Related: Preached; preaching.

Meaning "give earnest advice, especially on moral subjects" is by 1520s. To preach to the converted is recorded from 1867 (the form preach to the choir attested from 1979).

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information (n.)

late 14c., informacion, "act of informing, communication of news," from Old French informacion, enformacion "advice, instruction," from Latin informationem (nominative informatio) "outline, concept, idea," noun of action from past participle stem of informare "to train, instruct, educate; shape, give form to" (see inform). The restored Latin spelling is from 16c.

Meaning "knowledge communicated concerning a particular topic" is from mid-15c. The word was used in reference to television broadcast signals from 1937; to punch-card operating systems from 1944; to DNA from 1953. Information theory is from 1950; information technology is from 1958 (coined in "Harvard Business Review"); information revolution, to be brought about by advances in computing, is from 1966. Information overload is by 1967.

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impertinent (adj.)

late 14c., "unconnected, unrelated, not to the point" (now obsolete; OED's last citation is from Coleridge), from Old French impertinent (14c.) or directly from Late Latin impertinentem (nominative impertinens) "not belonging," literally "not to the point," from assimilated form of Latin in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + pertinens (see pertinent). Sense of "rudely bold, uncivil, offensively presumptuous" is from 1680s, from earlier sense of "not appropriate to the situation" (1580s), which probably is modeled on similar use in French, especially by Molière, from notion of meddling in what is beyond one's proper sphere.

Impertinent means forward, intrusive, generally from curiosity but sometimes with undesired advice, etc.; officious means forward to offer and undertake service where it is neither needed nor desired. A busybody may be either impertinent or officious, or both. [Century Dictionary]
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surgery (n.)

c. 1300, sirgirie, "medical treatment of an operative nature, such as cutting-operations, setting of fractures, etc.," from Old French surgerie, surgeure, contraction of serurgerie, from Late Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

According to OED, the British sense of "session at which a Member of Parliament (or other public servant) is available locally to be consulted by constituents" is by 1951, from an extended sense in medical practice of "regular session at which a doctor receives patients for consultation" in a room or den set aside for that purpose called a surgery (by 1846). The word has been extended in Britain to other free consultations for advice.

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kibitzer (n.)

"one who looks on at card games and offers unwelcome advice," 1915, from Yiddish, agent noun from kibitz (q.v.). "Der Kibitzer" is noted as the name of a Yiddish humorous weekly published in New York from 1908-1912. ["The Jewish Press in New York City," 1918]

LICENSE TO "KIBITZ"
"This license entitles bearer to 'kibitz'; to sit near any table of players; to criticize, knock, boost or do anything that will abuse players.
"If a man makes a wrong play it is up to the 'kibitzer' to correct him, and the 'kibitzer' will be held personally responsible should the player lose, and this license will be forfeited.
"Any licensed 'kibitzer' not abiding by above rules and regulations Will be subject to fine or imprisonment."
[notice said to have been posed on the bulletin board of the club room of the Associated Traveling Salesmen of New York, quoted in The Clothier and Furnisher, March 1915]
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marshal (n.)

mid-13c., "high officer of the royal court," charged with regulating ceremonies and maintaining order (early 13c. as a surname), from Old French mareschal "commanding officer of an army; officer in charge of a household" (Modern French maréchal), originally "stable officer, horse tender, groom" (Frankish Latin mariscaluis) from Frankish *marhskalk or a similar Germanic word, literally "horse-servant" (compare Old High German marahscalc "groom," Middle Dutch maerschalc).

This is from a Proto-Germanic compound of *markhaz "horse" (see mare (n.1)) + *skalkaz "servant" (source of Old English scealc "servant, retainer, member of a crew," Dutch schalk "rogue, wag," Gothic skalks "servant"). It corresponds to Old English horsþegn.

From early 14c. as "military commander, general in the army."  In the U.S., a civil officer appointed by the president (with advice and consent of the Senate) in each judicial district as the executive officer of the Supreme Court and the federal courts in his district. For sense development and the tendency of officers of the stable to become chief officers of royal households, compare constable. Also from Germanic are Italian scalco "steward," Spanish mariscal "marshal."

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