Etymology
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Topsy 

slave-girl character in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852), immortal in cliche for her response to a question about her origin put to her by the pious Northern abolitionist Miss Ophelia:

"Have you ever heard anything about God, Topsy?"
The child looked bewildered, but grinned, as usual.
"Do you know who made you?"
"Nobody as I knows on," said the child, with a short laugh.
The idea appeared to amuse her considerably; for her eyes twinkled, and she added--
"I spect I grow'd. Don't think nobody never made me."

In addition to being often misquoted by the addition of a "just" (or "jes'"), the line is sometimes used inappropriately in 20c. writing to indicate something that got large without anyone intending it to.

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handcuff (n.)

1640s as a decorative addition to a sleeve; 1690s as a type of restraining device, from hand (n.) + cuff (n.) in the "fetter for the wrist" sense (attested from 1660s). Old English had hondcops "a pair of hand cuffs," but the modern word is a re-invention. Related: Handcuffs. The verb is first attested 1720. Related: Handcuffed; handcuffing.

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malt (n.)

"grain (usually barley) in which, by heat, the starch is converted to sugar," Old English malt (Anglian), mealt (West Saxon), from Proto-Germanic *maltam (source also of Old Norse malt, Old Saxon malt, Middle Dutch, Dutch mout, Old High German malz, German Malz "malt"), possibly from PIE root *mel- (1) "soft" via the notion of "softening" the grain by steeping it in water before brewing.

By the addition of hops, and the subsequent processes of cooling, fermentation, and clarification, the wort is converted into porter, ale, or beer. The alcoholic fermentation of the wort without the addition of hops and distillation yield crude whisky. [Century Dictionary]

Finnish mallas, Old Church Slavonic mlato are considered to be borrowed from Germanic. Meaning "liquor produced by malt" is from 1718. As an adjective, "pertaining to, containing, or made with malt," 1707; malt liquor (which is fermented, not brewed) is attested from 1690s. 

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haughty (adj.)
"proud and disdainful," 1520s, a redundant extension of haught (q.v.) "high in one's own estimation" by addition of -y (2) on model of might/mighty, naught/naughty, etc. Middle English also had hautif in this sense (mid-15c., from Old French hautif), and hautein "proud, haughty, arrogant; presumptuous" (c. 1300), from Old French hautain. Related: Haughtily.
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quadraphonic (adj.)

1969, irregular hybrid formation from Latin-derived quadri- "four" + phonic, from Greek phonē "sound, voice" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say"). The goal was to reproduce front-to-back sound distribution in addition to side-to-side stereo. The later term for the same idea, surround sound, is preferable to this. Quadrasonic (1970) was at least not a hybrid. Related: Quadraphonics; quadraphony.

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acquire (v.)
"to get or gain, obtain," mid-15c., acqueren, from Old French aquerre "acquire, gain, earn, procure" (12c., Modern French acquérir), from Vulgar Latin *acquaerere, corresponding to Latin acquirere/adquirere "to get in addition to, accumulate, gain," from ad "to," here perhaps emphatic (see ad-), + quaerere "to seek to obtain" (see query (v.)). Reborrowed in current form from Latin c. 1600. Related: Acquired; acquiring.
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prosody (n.)

late 15c., prosodie, "the science or craft of versification, the knowledge of the quantities of syllables in poetry and their pronunciation," from Latin prosodia "accent of a syllable," from Greek prosōidia "song sung to music," also "accent mark; modulation of voice," etymologically "a singing in addition to," from pros "to, forward, near" (see pros-) + ōidē "song, poem" (see ode). Related: Prosodiacal; prosodial; prosodist.

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adjure (v.)

late 14c., adjuren, "to bind by oath; to question under oath;" c. 1400 as "to charge with an oath or under penalty of a curse," from Latin adiurare "confirm by oath, add an oath, to swear to in addition; call to witness," in Late Latin "to put (someone) to an oath," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iurare "swear," from ius (genitive iuris) "law" (see jurist). Related: Adjured; adjuring.

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epithet (n.)

"descriptive name for a person or thing," 1570s, from French épithète or directly from Latin epitheton (source also of Spanish epíteto, Portuguese epitheto, Italian epiteto), from Greek epitheton "an epithet; something added," noun use of adjective (neuter of epithetos) "attributed, added, assumed," from epitithenai "to add on," from epi "in addition" (see epi-) + tithenai "to put, to place" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Epithetic; epithetical.

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extra- 
word-forming element meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is usual or expected," in classical Latin recorded only in extraordinarius, but more used in Medieval Latin and modern formations; it represents Latin extra (adv.) "on the outside, without, except," the old fem. ablative singular of exterus "outward, outside," comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-).
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