Etymology
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niacin (n.)

"pellagra-preventing vitamin in enriched bread," 1942, coined from first syllables of  nicotinic acid (see nicotine) + chemical suffix -in (2). It was suggested by the American Medical Association as a more commercially viable name than nicotinic acid.

The new name was found to be necessary because some anti-tobacco groups warned against enriched bread because it would foster the cigarette habit. ["Cooperative Consumer," Feb. 28, 1942]
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phenol (n.)

"carbolic acid, hydroxyl derivative of benzene," 1844, from pheno- + -ol. Discovered in coal tar in 1834; used as an antiseptic from 1867. Related: Phenolic.

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anthemic (adj.)
of music, "felt to resemble an anthem," 1841, from anthem + -ic. In reference to a type of acid, 1859, so called because isolated from dog-fennel (Anthemis arvensis).
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ribonucleic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to certain nucleic acids yielding ribose on hydrolysis," 1931, from ribo-, combining form of ribose, the sugar component, + nucleic acid.

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butane (n.)
paraffin hydrocarbon, 1875, from butyl, hydrocarbon from butyric acid, a product of fermentation found in rancid butter, from Latin butyrum (see butter (n.)) + chemical suffix -ane.
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ribosome (n.)

1958, coined by U.S. microbiologist Richard B. Roberts (1910-1980) from ribo(nucleic acid) + -some "body" (see somato-). Related: Ribosomal.

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aceto- 

before vowels acet-, word-forming element from acetic and generally indicating compounds from or related to acetic acid, thus ultimately from Latin acetum "vinegar."

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malic (adj.)

"pertaining to apples, obtained from the juice of apples," 1790 (in malic acid, in a translation of Fourcroy), from French malique, from Latin mālum "apple" from Greek mēlon (Doric malon) "apple," which is probably from the Pre-Greek substrate language. The Latin and Greek words also meant "fruit" generally, especially if exotic. The acid, discovered 1785 by Swedish/German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, was obtained from unripe apples and other fruits. 

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nucleic (adj.)

"referring to a nucleus," 1892, in nucleic acid, which is a translation of German Nukleinsäure (1889), from Nuklein "substance obtained from a cell nucleus" (see nucleus + -in (2)) + -ic.

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Promethean (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or resembling in any way Prometheus," 1580s, from Prometheus (q.v.) + -an. Before the introduction of modern matches (see lucifer), promethean was the name given (1830) to small glass tubes full of sulphuric acid, surrounded by an inflammable mixture, which ignited when pressed and afforded a ready light. Related: Prometheans.

Prometheans are small glass bulbs, filled with concentrated sulphuric acid, and hermetically sealed, and surrounded with a mixture of inflammable materials, amongst which the chlorate of potash forms one ; and the whole being again inclosed or surrounded with paper, also rendered still more inflammable by means of resinous matters. Upon pinching the end containing the glass bulb, between the jaws of a pair of pliers, the bulb breaks, and the sulphuric acid instantly kindles the surrounding materials. ["Arcana of Science and Art," London, 1830]
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