Etymology
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mayor (n.)

"principal officer of a municipality, chief magistrate of a city or borough," c. 1300, mair, meir (mid-13c. as a surname), from Old French maire "head of a city or town government" (13c.), originally "greater, superior" (adj.), from Latin maior, major, comparative of magnus "great, large, big" (of size), "abundant" (of quantity), "great, considerable" (of value), "strong, powerful" (of force); of persons, "elder, aged," also, figuratively, "great, mighty, grand, important," from PIE *mag-no-, from root *meg- "great."

Mayoress is attested from late 15c. as "the wife of a mayor;" by 1863 as "woman holding the office of mayor."

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lush (n.)

"drunkard," 1890, from earlier slang meaning "liquor" (1790, especially in phrase lush ken "alehouse"), of obscure origin; perhaps a humorous use of lush (adj.) or from a word in Romany or Shelta (tinkers' jargon). It also was a verb, "to drink heavily" (1811).

LUSHEY. Drunk. The rolling kiddeys had a spree, and got bloody lushey; the dashing lads went on a party of pleasure, and got very drunk. ["Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit, and Pickpocket Eloquence," London, 1811]

Hence also Lushington humorous generic name for a tippler (1823). It was an actual surname.

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Mulligan (n.)

surname, from Gaelic Maolagan, Old Irish Maelecan, a double diminutive of mael "bald," hence "the little bald (or shaven) one," probably often a reference to a monk or disciple. As "stew made with whatever's available" (1904) it is hobo slang, probably from the proper name. The golf sense of "extra stroke after a poor shot" (1949) is sometimes said to be from the name of a Canadian golfer in the 1920s whose friends gave him an extra shot in gratitude for driving them over rough roads to their weekly foursome at St. Lambert Country Club near Montreal.

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crozier (n.)

"long staff ending in a hook or curve, carried by or before a bishop or archbishop on solemn occasions," late 13c., croiser (mid-13c. as a surname), "one who bears a bishop's staff, prelate's crosier-bearer," from Old French crocier, from Medieval Latin crociarius "bearer of a cross," from crocia "cross;" also from Old French croisier "one who bears or has to do with a cross" (see cross (n.)). The two words merged in Middle English. Technically, "the bearer of a bishop's pastoral staff;" erroneously applied to the staff itself since 1733.

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packer (n.)

mid-14c., pakker (mid-13c. as a surname), "one who packs goods in bundles for transportation," agent noun from pack (v.). As "a machine used for packing," by 1890. The Wisconsin U.S. football team was named at its founding in 1919 for the Indian Packing Company (a meat-canning operation where one of the founders worked as a shipping clerk), which gave the team organizers $500 for uniforms and equipment and let it use the company's field on condition that the team be named for its sponsor.

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barber (n.)

"one whose occupation is to shave the beard and cut and dress the hair," c. 1300, from Anglo-French barbour (attested as a surname from early 13c.), from Old French barbeor, barbieor (13c., Modern French barbier, which has a more restricted sense than the English word), from Vulgar Latin *barbatorem, from Latin barba "beard" (see barb (n.)).

Originally also regular practitioners of minor surgery, they were restricted to hair-cutting, blood-letting, and dentistry under Henry VIII. The barber's pole (1680s) is in imitation of the ribbon used to bind the arm of one who has been bled.

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northern (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a region, place, or point nearer the north than some other," Old English norþerna, norðerne "northern, of the north; Northumbrian; Scandinavian," cognate with Old High German nordroni, Old Norse norroenn (see north). With -erne, suffix denoting direction. Related: Northernmost.

Northerner "man from the north of England" is attested from late 13c. as a surname. In the U.S. sense "native or resident of the northern states or territories" it is attested by 1818. Northern lights "aurora borealis" is recorded by that name by 1721 (earlier north-light, 1706).

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Maxwell 

surname, later masc. proper name, attested from late 12c., from Maxwell, name of a town on the River Tweed on the Scottish borders (the name is probably "the well of Macc or Macca"). In physics, usually a reference to James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), as in Maxwell's demon (1879; as Maxwell's "intelligent demons" from 1874).

The definition of a "demon," according to the use of this word by Maxwell, is an intelligent being endowed with free will, and fine enough tactile and perceptive organisation to give him the faculty of observing and influencing individual molecules of matter. ["Nature," April 9, 1874]
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Marshall 

surname, from marshal (n.). The city in Texas, U.S., was named in 1841 for U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall (1755-1835). The Marshall Plan, "U.S. assistance to aid certain Western European nations recovering from World War II," is from 1947, named for its initiator, George C. Marshall (1880-1959), who was U.S. Secretary of State 1947-49. The Marshall Islands in the western Pacific were explored in 1788 by British naval captains John Marshall (1748-1819) and Thomas Gilbert, and named for the former (for the latter, see Kiribati). Related: Marshallese.

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casement (n.)

type of hinged sash-window that swings open like doors, early 15c., originally "hollow molding, frame for glass," probably a shortening of Old French dialectal enchassement "window frame" (Modern French enchâssement), from en- "in," prefix forming verbs, + casse "case, frame" (see case (n.2)) + -ment. Or possibly from Anglo-Latin cassementum, from casse. The "window" sense is from 1550s in English. Old folk etymology tended to make it gazement.

The Irish surname is originally Mc Casmonde (attested from 1429), from a misdivision of Mac Asmundr, from Irish mac "son of" + Old Norse Asmundr "god protector."

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