Etymology
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word-forming element of Greek origin appended to nouns and denoting collective numerals (triad, Olympiad) and fem. patronymics (Dryad, Naiad, also, in plural, Pleiades, Hyades), thence also plant family names; from Greek -as (genitive -ados), fem. suffix equivalent to -is.

From its use in Iliad (literally "of Ilion," that is, "Troy;" from Ilias poiesis or oidos "poem of Ilion," the accompanying noun being feminine, hence the termination) it has formed titles of poems in imitation of it (Columbiad, Dunciad).

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Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to, near, at."

It forms all or part of: abate; ado; ad-; ad hoc; ad lib; adage; adagio; add; adjective; adore; adorn; adult; adverb; advertise; agree; aid; alloy; ally; amontillado; amount; assure; at; atone; exaggerate; paramount; rapport; twit.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit adhi "near;" Latin ad "to, toward;" Old English æt.

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ad (n.)

abbreviation of advertisement, attested by 1841. Long resisted by those in the trade, and according to Mencken (1945) denounced by William C. D'Arcy (president of Associated Advertising Clubs of the World) as "the language of bootblacks, ... beneath the dignity of men of the advertising profession."

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ad hoc 

Latin phrase, "to this, with respect to this, for this (specific purpose)," from ad "to" (see ad-) + hoc, neuter accusative of hic "this." Hence, "appointed or enacted for some particular purpose" (1879).

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ad hominem 

c. 1600, Latin, literally "to a man," from ad "to" (see ad-) + hominem, accusative of homo "man" (see homunculus). Hence, "to the interests and passions of the person." Originally an argument or appeal to the known preferences or principles of the person addressed, rather than to abstract truth or logic.

Aristotle (Topics, viii 11) remarks that it is sometimes necessary to refute the disputant rather than his position, and some medieval logicians taught that refutation was of two kinds, solutio recta and solutio ad hominem, the latter being imperfect or fallacious refutation. [Century Dictionary]
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ad infinitum 

"endlessly," Latin, literally "to infinity" from ad "to, unto" (see ad-) + infinitum "infinity," neuter accusative of adjective infinitus "endless" (see infinite). The English version to infinity is attested from 1630s.

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ad lib 

also ad lib., 1811 as a musical instruction, shortened from Latin ad libitum "to (one's) pleasure, as much as one likes" (c. 1600), from ad "to" (see ad-) + libitum "pleasure," accusative of libere "to please" (see libido). As a noun from 1825; as a verb by 1915.

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ad nauseam (adv.)

"to a sickening extent," Latin, literally "to sickness," from ad "to" (see ad-) + nauseam, accusative of nausea (see nausea). Especially of the disgust aroused by wearisome repetition.

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ad valorem 

type of customs duties based on the market value of goods at the original place of shipment, 1711, Modern Latin, "(in proportion) to the value," from ad "to" (see ad-) + Late Latin valorem, accusative of valor "value" (see value (n.)). Sometimes abbreviated ad val.

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Ada 

fem. proper name, from Hebrew Adha, literally "ornament."

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