Etymology
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congregational (adj.)

1630s, "of or pertaining to a congregation," from congregation + -al (1). In reference to Congregationalism, the Protestant movement in which church congregations were self-governing, from 1640s. The term was most used in New England, in Britain they were called Independent.

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royalist (n.)

"supporter or adherent of a sovereign" (especially in times of civil war), "a monarchist," 1640s, from royal + -ist. In England, a partisan of Charles I and II during the Civil War; in the U.S., an adherent of British government during the Revolution; in France, a supporter of the Bourbons.

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hashish (n.)

also hasheesh, 1590s, from Arabic hashīsh "powdered hemp, hemp," extended from sense "herbage, dry herb, rough grass, hay."

Its earliest record as a nickname for cannabis drug is in 13th century Arabic. Its earliest in English is in a traveller's report from Egypt in 1598. It is rare in English until the 19th century. The wordform in English today dates from the early 19th century. The word entered all the bigger Western European languages in the early to mid 19th century if you don't count occasional mentions in travellers' reports before then. ["English Words of Arabic Ancestry"]
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alpha (n.)
c. 1300, from Latin alpha, from Greek alpha, from Hebrew or Phoenician aleph (see aleph). The Greeks added -a because Greek words cannot end in most consonants. Sense of "beginning of anything" is from late 14c., often paired with omega (the last letter in the Greek alphabet, representing "the end"); sense of "first in a sequence" is from 1620s. In astronomy, the designation of the brightest star of each constellation (the use of Greek letters in star names began with Bayer's atlas in 1603). Alpha male was in use by c. 1960 among scientists studying animals; applied to humans in society from c. 1992.
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Black Death (n.)

"bubonic/pneumonic plague epidemic of 1347-51 in Europe," a modern name, introduced in English 1823 by Elizabeth Penrose's history of England. The contemporary 14c. name for it in most European languages was something like "the great dying" or simply "the plague;" in English it was the pestilence (or, looking back after its return in 1361-2, the first pestilence).

The term "Black Death" first turns up in 16c. Swedish and Danish chronicles, but it is used in reference to a visitation of plague in Iceland (which had been spared in the earlier outbreaks) in 1402-3 that carried off much of the population there. The exact sense of "black" is not clear. The term appears in English translations of the Scandinavian works from 1750s. It was picked up in German c. 1770 and applied to the earlier outbreak and was taken from there into English in that sense.

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left (n.)

c. 1200, "the left-hand side, the side opposite the right," from left (adj.). In military formations with reference to the center; of river banks it implies going in the direction the current flows; in an assembly in reference to the seat of the presiding officer; in baseball in reference to the point of view of the batter.

Political sense "the democratic or liberal party" arose from the custom of assigning those members of a legislative body to the left side of a chamber. This usage is first attested in English in 1837 (by Carlyle, in reference to the French Revolution), and probably is a loan-translation of French la gauche (1791), said to have originated during the seating of the French National Assembly in 1789 in which the nobility took the seats on the President's right and left the Third Estate to sit on the left. The term became general in U.S. and British political speech c. 1900. Century Dictionary and OED 2nd ed. both refer to this as primarily in reference to continental European politics.

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cist (n.)

1804, in British archaeology, "sepulchral chest or chamber;" 1847, in Greek history, "small receptacle for sacred utensils in a procession;" in the second sense from Latin cista "wickerwork basket, box," from Greek kistē "box, chest" (see chest); in the first sense from Welsh cist in cist faen "stone coffin," the first element of which is from the Latin word.

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inset (n.)
1550s, "influx of water; place where water flows in," from in (prep.) + set (n.2). The sense "that which is set in" ("extra pages of a book, etc.," 1871; "small map in the border of a larger one," 1872) probably is a separate formation. In Old English insetan (Old Northumbrian insetta) meant "an institution," literally "a setting in," and perhaps a loan-translation of the source of institution. Similar formation in German einsetzen "to use, employ; institute, begin; install."
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interference (n.)
1783, "intermeddling," from interfere on model of difference, etc. In physics, in reference to the mutual action of waves on each other, from 1802, coined in this sense by English scientist Dr. Thomas Young (1773-1829). Telephoning (later broadcasting) sense is from 1887. In chess from 1913; in U.S. football from 1894.
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agonist (n.)
1876, in writings on Greek drama, "a hero (attacked in the play by an antagonist)," from Latin agonista, Greek agonistes "rival combatant in the games, competitor; opponent (in a debate)," also, generally "one who struggles (for something)," from agonia "a struggle for victory" (in wrestling, etc.), in a general sense "exercise, gymnastics;" also of mental struggles, "agony, anguish" (see agony). Agonistes as an (ironic) epithet seems to have been introduced in English by T.S. Eliot (1932).
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