Etymology
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Pareto 

1920, in reference to the work of Italian economist Vilfredo Federico Pareto (1848-1923). Related: Paretan.

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parfait (n.)

kind of rich frozen dessert, 1894, French, literally "perfect" (see perfect (adj.)).

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parhelion (n.)

"mock-sun, an intensification of light on the solar halo," 1640s, from Greek parhelion "a mock-sun," from assimilated form of para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + hēlios "sun" (from PIE root *sawel- "the sun").

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pari passu 

"on an equality, without preference," Latin, literally "with equal step," from ablative of par "equal" (see par) + passus "pace" (see pace (n.)).

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pariah (n.)

1610s, "member of a low caste in southern India, shunned as unclean," from Portuguese paria or directly from Tamil (Dravidian) paraiyar, plural of paraiyan "drummer" (at festivals, the hereditary duty of members of the largest of the lower castes of southern India), from parai "large festival drum." "Especially numerous at Madras, where its members supplied most of the domestics in European service" [OED]. Applied by Hindus and Europeans to any members of low Hindu castes and even to outcastes. Extended meaning "social outcast" is attested by 1819.

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Parian (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Paros," one of the Cyclades, famous for its white marble.

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parietal (adj.)

early 15c., "pertaining to the walls of a cavity in the body," from Late Latin parietalis "of walls," from Latin paries (genitive parietis) "wall" (of a building), a word of unknown origin. In U.S. also "pertaining to the residents and rules of a college or university" (1837; compare intramural). Combining form is parieto-.

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pari-mutuel 

1881 in reference to a form of betting, from French pari-mutuel "mutual wager," from pari "wager" (from parier "to bet," from Latin pariare "to settle a debt," literally "to make equal," from par, genitive paris, "equal;" see par (n.)) + mutuel "mutual," from Latin mutuus (see mutual (adj.)).

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paring (n.)

late 14c., "act of trimming" something, also "that which is pared off;" verbal noun from pare (v.). Paring-knife is attested from 1590s.

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Paris 

capital of France, from Gallo-Latin Lutetia Parisorum (in Late Latin also Parisii), name of a fortified town of the Gaulish tribe of the Parisii, who had a capital there; literally "Parisian swamps" (see Lutetian).

The tribal name is of unknown origin, but it is traditionally derived from a Celtic par "boat" (perhaps related to Greek baris; see barge (n.)), hence the ship on the city's coat of arms.

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