Etymology
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pardon (n.)

c. 1300, pardoun, "papal indulgence, forgiveness of sins or wrongdoing," from Old French pardon, from pardoner "to grant; forgive" (11c., Modern French pardonner), "to grant, forgive," and directly from Medieval Latin perdonum, from Vulgar Latin *perdonare "to give wholeheartedly, to remit," from Latin per "through, thoroughly" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through") + donare "give as a gift," from donum "gift," from PIE *donum "gift," from root *do- "to give."

Meaning "a passing over of an offense without punishment" is from c. 1300, also in the strictly ecclesiastical sense; the sense of "pardon for a civil or criminal offense; release from penalty or obligation" is from late 14c., earlier in Anglo-French. Weaker sense of "excuse for a minor fault" is attested from 1540s. To beg (one's) pardon "ask forgiveness" is by 1640s.

Strictly, pardon expresses the act of an official or a superior, remitting all or the remainder of the punishment that belongs to an offense: as, the queen or the governor pardons a convict before the expiration of his sentence. Forgive refers especially to the feelings; it means that one not only resolves to overlook the offense and reestablishes amicable relations with the offender, but gives up all ill feeling against him. [Century Dictionary]
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pardonable (adj.)

"forgivable, capable of being pardoned," mid-15c., from Old French pardonable (12c.), from pardoner (see pardon (v.)). Related: Pardonably.

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pardoner (n.)

"man licensed to sell papal pardons or indulgences," late 14c. (early 14c. as a surname), agent noun from pardon (v.).

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pare (v.)

c. 1300, paren, "peel (fruit), cut off the crust (of bread)," from Old French parer "arrange, prepare; trim, adorn," and directly from Latin parare "make ready, prepare, furnish, provide, arrange, order; contrive, design, intend, resolve; procure, acquire, obtain, get; get with money, buy, purchase" (related to parire "produce, bring forth, give birth to"), from PIE *par-a-, suffixed form of root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure."

From late 14c. in the more general sense of "trim by cutting or scraping off an outer layer;" meaning "to reduce something little by little" is from 1520s. Pare down "reduce by cutting or striking off" is from late 15c. Related: Pared; paring.

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paregoric (n.)

"medicine that soothes pain," 1704, from adjective (1680s) "assuaging pain, soothing," from Late Latin paregoricus, from Greek paregorikos "soothing, encouraging, consoling," from paregorein "speak soothingly to," from paregoros "consoling," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + root of agoreuein "speak in public," from agora "public assembly," from PIE root *ger- "to gather."

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parenchyma (n.)

"the proper tissue or substance of any organ or part," as distinguished from connective tissue, etc., 1650s, Modern Latin, from Greek parenkhyma "something poured in beside," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + enkhyma "infusion," from en- "in" + khein "to pour" (from PIE root *gheu- "to pour"). In ancient physiology, the stuff that was supposed to make up the liver, lungs, etc., which was believed to be formed from blood strained through the capillaries and congealed. Related: Parenchymal; parenchymous.

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parent (n.)

early 15c. (late 12c. as a surname), "a mother or father; a forebear, ancestor," from Old French parent "father, parent, relative, kin" (11c.) and directly from Latin parentem (nominative parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of present participle of parire "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth." Began to replace native elder after c. 1500.

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parent (v.)

1660s, transitive, "be or act as a parent to," from parent (n.). Intransitive sense of "be a parent" is by 1959. Related: Parented; parenting.

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parentage (n.)

late 15c., "parental conduct, parental relationship exhibited in the recognition and care of children," from Old French parentage (12c.), from parent (see parent (n.)). Meaning "descent or derivation from parents, lineage" is from 1560s; figurative use from 1580s. An earlier word was parage "descent, lineage; family," late 13c., from Old French.

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parental (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a parent or parents; proper to or characteristic of parents," 1620s, from Latin parentalis "of parents," from parens "father or mother" (see parent (n.)). Related: Parentally.

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